生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 210-216.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014205

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海州湾蟹类群落种类组成及其多样性

罗西玲, 任一平, 邢磊, 徐宾铎*()   

  1. 中国海洋大学水产学院, 山东青岛 266003
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-25 接受日期:2015-01-28 出版日期:2015-03-20 发布日期:2015-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 徐宾铎
  • 基金资助:
    海洋公益性行业科研专项经费(201305030)、高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(20120132130001)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(201262004)

Species composition and diversity of crab assemblage in Haizhou Bay

Xiling Luo, Yiping Ren, Lei Xing, Binduo Xu*()   

  1. College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003
  • Received:2014-09-25 Accepted:2015-01-28 Online:2015-03-20 Published:2015-04-09
  • Contact: Xu Binduo

摘要:

本研究根据2011年3月、5月、7月、9月和12月在海州湾海域进行的渔业资源底拖网调查数据, 采用Margalef种类丰富度指数(D)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)和Pielou均匀度指数(J′)等分析了该海域蟹类群落种类组成及其多样性的时空变化。结果表明, 本次调查共捕获蟹类34种, 隶属于18科27属, 其中玉蟹科种数最多, 有3属4种。从适温属性来看, 主要以暖水种(16种)和暖温种(15种)为主, 冷温种3种。蟹类群落各多样性指数的月际间变化较大, 其中物种丰富度指数(D)3月最高, 12月最低; 多样性指数(H′)和均匀度指数(J′)均在7月最高, 12月最低。多样性指数的空间分布呈现一定的月变化: 在3月、5月、7月均表现为北高南低; 9月为中部低, 南、北部海域较高; 12月均呈南高北低的趋势。蟹类单位网次渔获尾数空间分布格局呈现明显的月变化; 平均单位网次渔获尾数呈现一定的月变化, 总体上表现为3月、5月、12月高于7月和9月。Pearson相关分析结果表明, 在5月, 多样性指数(H′)和均匀度指数(J′)与底层水温呈显著负相关, 与底层盐度呈极显著正相关, 多样性指数还与水深呈显著正相关; 12月均匀度指数与底层水温和水深均呈极显著负相关, 与底层盐度呈显著负相关; 在3月、7月和9月, 各多样性指数与底层水温、底层盐度及水深均无显著相关性。海州湾蟹类种类组成及多样性的时空变化主要与海州湾地处温带海域、水温等海洋环境因子的季节变化以及优势种的数量分布有关。

关键词: 海州湾, 蟹类, 生物多样性, 时空分布

Abstract

The species composition and diversity of crab assemblage in Haizhou Bay was assessed using bottom-trawl survey data collected in March, May, July, September, and December, 2011. Crab species composition and the spatio-temporal variations in species diversity of communities were examined using ecological diversity indices. In total, 34 crab species belonging to 18 families and 27 genera were caught during the surveys. There were 16 warm water species, 15 warm temperate species and 3 cold temperate species. Margalef’s species richness index (D) was highest in March and lowest in December while the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′) and Pielou evenness index (J′) were highest in July and lowest in December. Diversity, richness, and evenness also varied spatially over time. In March, May and July the highest values occurred in the northern area of the survey site and lowest in the southern part. In September, values were lowest in the central survey site and high in the northern and southern areas. In December, values were low in northern survey site and high in southern areas. The number of individuals per haul per hour varied spatially and temporally by month with higher numbers in March, May and December. Correlation analysis showed that crab community species diversity was significantly affected by water temperature, salinity, depth and the season in Haizhou Bay. The spatio-temporal variations in species composition and diversity of crab assemblage in Haizhou Bay are primarily related to the seasonal changes in environmental factors such as bottom water temperature and the spatial distribution of main dominant species.

Key words: Haizhou Bay, crabs, species diversity, spatio-temporal distribution