生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 419-425.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014183

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极小种群野生植物的概念及其对我国野生植物保护的影响

杨文忠1,*(), 向振勇1, 张珊珊1, 康洪梅1, 史富强2   

  1. 1 (云南省林业科学院珍稀濒特森林植物保护和繁育国家林业局重点实验室, 昆明 650201)
    2 (普洱市林业科学研究所, 云南普洱 665000);
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-29 接受日期:2015-02-11 出版日期:2015-06-09 发布日期:2015-06-12
  • 通讯作者: 杨文忠
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31460119);国家林业局珍稀濒危物种野外救护与繁育项目(2013YB1002, 2014YB1004);云南省极小种群物种拯救保护项目(2013YB1005);云南省自然科学基金项目(2013FD075)

Plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) and their significance in China’s national plant conservation strategy

Wenzhong Yang1,*, Zhenyong Xiang1, Shanshan Zhang1, Hongmei Kang1, Fuqiang Shi2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Rare and Endangered Forest Plants of State Forestry Administration, Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650201
    2 Pu’er Forestry Research Institute, Pu’er, Yunnan 665000
  • Received:2014-08-29 Accepted:2015-02-11 Online:2015-06-09 Published:2015-06-12
  • Contact: Yang Wenzhong

摘要:

近年来我国提出极小种群野生植物(plant species with extremely small populations, PSESP)的概念并启动实施了全国极小种群野生植物拯救保护工程规划, 然而PSESP概念自提出后就不断受到质疑, 认为不确切的概念及其引领的保护工程难以取得显著成效。为了更好地理解PSESP概念和相应的保护对策, 本文在回顾我国野生植物保护进程的基础上, 通过梳理珍稀濒危植物、重点保护植物和极小种群植物等概念, 提出从物种选列标准和极小种群临界值等角度理解PSESP概念的途径; 并通过比较各个时期采取的保护策略措施, 指出基于种群管理的PSESP保护能体现物种以种群形式得以维持和延续的本质, 但急需完善传统的资源调查、就地保护、迁地保护方法, 探索种群调查分析、近地保护和种群恢复重建等新方法。最后认为PSESP概念的提出及其拯救保护工程的实施在我国野生植物保护领域具有里程碑意义, 能促进保护实践和科学研究的相互融合, 实现二者共同发展。

关键词: 珍稀濒危植物, 重点保护植物, 极小种群植物, 保护对策, 基于种群管理的物种保护

Abstract

The National Implementation Plan for Rescuing and Conserving China’s Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP) was formulated when the concept of PSESP was presented in recent years. However, the concept of PSESP has been controversial since its introduction and criticized as an inaccurate theory with little value to plant species conservation programs. To better understand the theory behind PSESP and relevant conservation strategies, we reviewed the history of plant conservation in China and summarized how conservation strategies regarding rare and endangered speceis, key protected species and PSESP were initiated. PSESP can be understood through the perspectives on species selection criteria, thresholds of the extremely small populations and connections to previous protected species lists. Conservation strategies and actions were compared across time scales. From this review, we suggest that population-based PSESP conservation exemplifies the essence of species protection, i.e., species are maintained through populations. To conserve PSESP, traditional methods such as plant inventory, in situ conservation and ex situ conservation need to be improved. New methods such as population demography, near situ or quasi in situ conservation and population restoration and reestablishment should be developed. Finally, we conclud that the theory of PSESP with its relevant conservation programs represents a milestone in China’s plant conservation, because it will enhance the interplay between conservation practice and scientific research.

Key words: rare and endangered plant species, key protected plant species, plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP), conservation strategy, population-based species conservation