生物多样性 ›› 2006, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (4): 300-308.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060012

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

西双版纳傣族村寨对湿地植物的传统利用

方利英1,2, 刘宏茂1 , 崔景云1, 许再富1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2006-01-16 修回日期:2006-06-26 出版日期:2006-07-20 发布日期:2006-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 许再富

Traditional use of wetland plants in Dai villages in Xishuangbanna, Yun-nan

Liying Fang1,2, Hongmao Liu1, Jingyun Cui1, Zaifu Xu1*   

  1. 1 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    2 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2006-01-16 Revised:2006-06-26 Online:2006-07-20 Published:2006-07-20
  • Contact: Zaifu Xu

摘要: 作者用半结构访谈与关键人物访谈相结合, 并佐以证据标本采集的民族植物学研究方法, 对云南省西双版纳3个自然环境和经济社会条件差异较大的典型傣族村寨(曼降, 曼安, 曼伞)居民的湿地植物知识, 以及不同性别、年龄人群掌握湿地植物知识的差异作了统计分析。研究结果表明: (1)西双版纳傣族村寨利用的湿地植物种类丰富, 经鉴定的有46科102种, 以湿生植物为主; 利用类型有食用类、药用、代茶类和宗教类等, 以食用类为主。(2)三个村寨中以曼伞调查和采集到的植物种类最多, 曼安次之, 曼降最低。3个村寨利用的湿地植物种类的相似性低。这与村寨周围的自然植被类型及其干扰程度密切相关。(3)统计分析显示, 村寨的自然环境与经济发展状况对该村村民传统湿地知识的掌握有重要的影响。食用和药用、代茶植物知识在3个村寨都表现为年长组(>45岁)明显高于年轻组(≤45岁, P<0.05), 而男性和女性对不同知识的掌握则因村寨自然环境和经济发展状况的不同而各不相同。植物多样性和民族传统文化多样性的关系显示出传统知识的传承对植物多样性保护是十分重要的。

关键词: TWINSPAN分类, 环境因子, 物种多样性, CCA 排序

AbstractWe studied the usefulness of wetland plants in three Dai villages, Manjing, Man’an and Mansan, all in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. Each village had varied environmental conditions and cultural traditions. We examined differences in the knowledge of using and conserving wetland plants between different age groups and between different genders. Our results showed that: (1) Dai people of Xishuangbanna used a wide range of wetland plants, including 46 families and 102 species, of which hygrophytes (helophytes) are the dominant group. The use of wetland plants can be divided into three categories: food source, medicinal use, and religious purposes, of which food source was the most common use. (2) The number of species used traditionally was higher in Mansan than in Man’an or Manjiang. Few plants were commonly used in all three villages. This variation in wetland plant use correlated closely with vegetation types near each village and the land use history of each village. (3) Knowledge for the use of wetland plants in the elder group (>45 years of age, P<0.05) of the three villages was remarkably more vast than in the younger groups (≤45), and the knowledge difference between genders had a close relationship with environmental conditions and economic status in the villages. We further discussed the relationship between plant diversity and traditional cultural diversity. Our results suggest that transmission and inheritance of ethnical culture plays a very important role for the conservation of plant diversity.