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Table of Content
    Volume 19 Issue 1
    20 January 2011

    As a result of seven volcanic eruptions that took place over the past 2.1 million years, Wudalianchi is a representative of a wider network of intracontinental volcanic remains in northern China. The distinctive volcanic terrain and the on-going vegetation succession process have developed the outstanding universal values of Wudalianchi in geography and biology. The picture shows the rope-like lava flow and Laoheishan volcano after the volcanic eruption during 1722–1723. For details see

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    Special Issue
    Strategic targets for biodiversity conservation in 2011–2020
    Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  1-2.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.02018
    Abstract ( 2212 )   PDF (148KB) ( 3974 )   Save
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    Mechanisms underlying copy number variation in F-box genes: evidence from comparison of 12 Drosophila species
    An Li, Guixia Xu, Hongzhi Kong
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  3-16.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.14256
    Abstract ( 2710 )   PDF (2451KB) ( 3018 )   Save
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    Copy number variation (CNV) is a special type of mutational change that plays important roles in phenotypic variation and organismal evolution. To explore the mechanisms underlying copy number variation and to understand its biological significance, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary patterns and chromosomal locations of F-box genes in 12 closely-related Drosophila species. A total of 541 F-box genes were identified and phylogenetic analyses suggested that they are members of 48 gene clusters (or orthologous groups). Although we observed no drastic changes in the total numbers of F-box genes among the 12 extant Drosophila species (42–47), we found many gene gain and loss events that have caused copy number variation. These results demonstrated that the similarity in the total numbers of F-box genes among different species has, to a certain degree, masked the frequent and independent gain and loss events. Comparisons of the chromosomal locations of orthologous genes showed that extensive microsynteny could be detected only between very closely-related sibling species. We also found that the main mechanisms that caused the increase in gene number were dispersed duplication and tandem duplication, while retroposition and de novo origination from non-coding sequences were two other noteworthy mechanisms. Mutations that caused shifts in exon-intron boundaries and/or losses of exons seemed to be the main mechanisms that underlie decreases in copy number. Although the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the 12 Drosophila species had a similar number of genes as the extant species we studied, gains of new genes and losses of existing ones have caused changes in the makeup of F-box genes in descendent species. Our study suggested that variations in the numbers of gene copies is a reflection of “birth-and-death” evolution at the genomic level and have provided raw materials for phenotypic and physiological diversification.
    Genetic diversity in adzuki bean and its relatives based on SSR markers
    Lixia Wang, Xuzhen Cheng, Suhua Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  17-23.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07155
    Abstract ( 3103 )   PDF (326KB) ( 2890 )   Save
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    In order to enhance the use of genetic resources of Vigna in breeding of adzuki bean, genetic di-versity and relationship were analyzed based on 87 SSR markers. The results showed 667 alleles were de-tected at these SSR loci among 112 accessions of Vigna plants, including 80 cultivated, 22 wild adzuki bean and 10 relative plants. And 75, 71 and 82 were polymorphic in cultivated, wild adzuki bean and relative plants, respectively. Random sampling analysis suggested that the relative plants ranked the first for the av-erage number of alleles per SSR locus, and wild adzuki bean ranked the second, this was agreeable with polymorphism information content (PIC). Cluster analysis divided the cultivated, wild adzuki bean and rela-tive plants into three distinct groups. The genetic background of cultivated adzuki bean basically agreed with their origins. The relative plants could also be divided into three sub-groups, and V. umbellata had different genetic background with other wild species. The present study suggested that wild Vigna had higher genetic variations than cultivated adzuki bean, and could be used to broadening the gene pool of this crop.
    Floral syndrome and secondary pollen presentation in Codonopsis clem-atidea (Campanulaceae)
    Li Wang, Dunyan Tan
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  24-33.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.10167
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    Secondary pollen presentation has been described as a reproductive strategy that enhances the ef-ficiency and accuracy of pollen exportation and pollen reception, thereby promoting outcrossing. Codonopsis clematidea is characterized by secondary pollen presentation. The objective of this research is to study the floral syndrome and the procedure of secondary pollen presentation of this species, with special reference to the adaptive significance of these features based on the field observations, hand-pollination experiments and indoor microscopic observations. The results showed that the blue campanulate pendulous corolla and black and yellow nectary of C. clematidea not only protect the androecium and gynoecium from rain damage and prevent rain water from diluting the nectar and removal of pollen by wind, but they also attract more pollina-tors and extend the duration of pollen viability and stigma receptivity. The secondary pollen presentation of this species is sub-terminal stylar presenters and belongs to the deposition mechanism. This character limits the amount of pollen removed by the pollinators and prolongs pollen presentation, thus attracting more pollinators and thereby increasing male fitness. The protandry and the change of the spatial position of male and female organs during the flowering stage of C. clematidea not only avoid interference between male and fe-male functions, but also create a passageway for pollinators to forage for nectar and pollen and for stigmas to receive outcross pollen. Bombus silvarum, B. paradoxus and Dolichovespula sylvestris are the effective pol-linators in the generalist pollination system of this species. Other floral characteristics of this species, such as long flowering duration (approximately 6 d) per flower, overlap of the peak of insects visitation in the male and female phases with the period of highest pollen viability and the optimal stigma receptivity of pollen, lots of nectar that contains a higher sugar concentration and a long period of nectar secretion during the flowering stage, etc, enhance visitation frequencies and the chances of successful pollination. Therefore, these traits help improve pollination efficiency and promote outcrossing. The special floral syndrome and the mechanism of secondary pollen presentation are significant in improving pollination efficiency and promoting the repro-ductive success of Codonopsis clematidea by outcrossing under changeable weather conditions in Tianshan Mountains.
    Community structure and vascular plant species composition of primary spruce forest near timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau
    Xin Liu, Weikai Bao
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  34-40.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07098
    Abstract ( 3236 )   PDF (513KB) ( 2709 )   Save
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    Spruce forest is a typical alpine forest type near timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. How-ever, little is known about this ecosystem. In the present study we investigated community structure and vas-cular plant composition of such forests in northern Zamtang County, Sichuan Province, China. We sampled six plots (40 m×50 m) in primary forests in a range of 3,700–3,800 m elevation. For all trees ≥ 3 m in height in each plot, height and diameter at 50 cm height were measured. A total of 180 subplots (1 m×1 m), 30 for each plot, were sampled to estimate the coverage of shrubs, herbs and bryophytes, and species compo-sition of shrubs and herbs. Four sub-layers could be recognized within the canopy, suggesting that the forest is uneven-aged and multi-storied. Structure analysis of tree height and diameter showed that the arborous layer was stable and maintained a certain regenerative ability. Shrubs showed a patchy spatial pattern with simple structure and low richness. Compared to low coverage (15.4±20.9%) of shrubs, coverage of herbs and bryophytes (49.4±21.9% and 36.6±21.2%, respectively) were higher, forming obvious herb and bryophyte layers. A total of 124 vascular species (109 herbs and 15 shrubs) were recorded in all six plots, belonging to 68 genera and 30 families. Temperate areal-type genera and hemicryptophyte species were dominant. We concl- uded that the forest was a moss-spruce forest type. Although the species composition and richness were quite similar to other forests in Tibetan Plateau, community structure differed significantly. Our results provide in-sights into management and biodiversity conservation in forests near the timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.
    The ecological response of fern diversity to different slopes in Gudoushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong
    Yuehong Yan, Zuxia He, Hu Yuan, Fuwu Xing
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  41-47.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07109
    Abstract ( 2893 )   PDF (428KB) ( 3096 )   Save
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    In order to examine the effect of slope differences on fern diversity, we chose 10 plots (5×5 m2 for each plot) on east-, west-, south-, and north-facing slopes, with altitudes ranging from 20 to 986 m in Gu-doushan Nature Reserve, Xinhui, Guangdong, China. We obtained the following results: (1) Species abun-dance on the east- and north-facing slopes were high, while that on the west- and south-facing slopes were low. (2) Similarity indices of ferns in different slope orientations were low (<0.5), which suggested that ori-entation significantly influenced fern diversity. The difference between the south- and north-facing slopes (similarity index, 0.2895) and the similarity between west- and south-facing slopes (similarity indices, up to 0.4643) were the most obvious. (3) Tropical ferns were dominant in sunny slopes, while non-tropical ferns were dominant in shady slopes. The percentage of tropical ferns on the south-, west-, east-, and north-facing slopes decreased, while that of non-tropical ferns increased. (4) Shade ferns were dominant in shady slopes, while sunny ferns were dominant in sunny slopes; the number of shade ferns regularly increased on the south-, west-, east-, and north-facing slopes. These results clearly indicated how light and heat on different slopes affected fern diversity and suggested that fern diversity could be a good indicator of environmental and climatic changes.
    Phytoplankton community structure and its succession in Dianshan Lake
    Liqing Wang, Rong Shi, Gaohua Ji, Zhifeng Fan, Jinglei Cheng
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  48-56.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.09044
    Abstract ( 3403 )   PDF (675KB) ( 3491 )   Save
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    Phytoplankon samples were collected monthly in Dianshan Lake, the largest natural freshwater lake in Shanghai during 2004–2006, to assay the phytoplankton community structure and ascertain the rela-tionship between its succession and the eutrophication for the lake. Two hundred and five species from 84 genera were identified in Dianshan Lake, with Chlorophyta (50%), Bacillariophyta (20%), Cyanophyta (13%) and Euglenophyta (13%) being the main phyla. The monthly similarity index of species was high in winter and spring, while low in summer and autumn. The dominant species were Merismopedia glauca,Phormidium tenus, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. marginata, Lyngbya limnetica, Chroococcus minutus, Melosira granulata var. an-gustissima, Cryptomonas erosa, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda. The total phytoplankton abundance was mainly composed of Cyanophyta (36.75%), Chlorophyta (16.78%), Bacillariophyta (16.36%) and Cryptophyta (13.53%). The total phytoplankton biomass was dominantly made up of Bacillariophyta (36.75%), Cyanophyta (16.78%), Chlorophyta (16.36%) and Cryptophyta (13.53%). The seasonal succession of phytoplankton community structure in Dianshan Lake was different from the PEG Model, with Cyanophyta of great abundance occurring at the end of spring, then dominating in summer and the early autumn. In the past five decades, the succession pattern of phytoplankton community in the Dianshan Lake showed a decrease in the proportion of such oligotrophic species as Chrysophyta and Dinophyta and an increase in such eutrophic species as Cyanophyta, Cryptophyta and Chlorophyta. The abundance increased from 103 ind./L in 1959 to 1.11×107cells/L during 2004–2006. The phytoplankton community structure changed from Bacillariophyta-Chrysophyta type in 1959, Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type during 1987–1988 to Cyano-phyta-Chlorophyta type during 2004–2006. The changes in the abundance and structure of phytoplankton community and its seasonal succession indicated the evolving eutrophication of Dianshan Lake.
    Assessment of threaten status on the Wild Plants Under State Protection in China
    Yinbo Zhang, Hu Yuan, Mei Yu
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  57-62.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.0567133
    Abstract ( 2895 )   PDF (273KB) ( 3689 )   Save
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    Endangered species threaten status assessment is an important basis for determining protec-tion priorities and establishing conservation strategies, and it has become a key step in biodiversity con-servation. We used IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria to assess threaten status of the Wild Plants Under State Protection in China. The results indicated that 2 of these species were assessed as Extinct (EX), 3 species as Extinct in Wild (EW), 310 species as Critically Endangered (CR), 638 species as Endangered (EN), 911 species as Vulnerable (VU), 117 species as Near Threatened (NT), 162 species as Least Concern (LC), and 34 species as Data Deficient (DD). Our assessment highlighted discrepan-cies between IUCN categories and the corresponding protection categories used in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection, thus indicating that threaten status might not be the sole criterion as-sessed when determining and assigning protection categories. Our study provides a scientific reference for the establishment of a threaten status hierarchy and the protection of endangered plants.
    An analysis of the ecological value of Wudalianchi, Heilongjiang Province, China
    Zhiqiang Zhou, Lijiao Xu, Yuhong Zhang, Chunmei Xia, Hongguang Li, Tong Liu, Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  63-70.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08262
    Abstract ( 2605 )   PDF (665KB) ( 3425 )   Save
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    Wudalianchi is located within the ecotone between the Great Hinggan Mountains, the Less Hing-gan Mountains and the forest steppes of the Songnen Plain. As a result of seven volcanic eruptions in the past 2.1 million years, Wudalianchi contains the most well-preserved intra-continental volcanic remains in China, and was nominated in 2010 as a World Heritage Property. In order to state “the outstanding universal values” of the nominated property in terms of biodiversity and ecological processes, we analyzed data from field in-vestigations and scientific literature under the lens of the Operational Guidelines provided by the World Heritage Committee, compared this data with data from other related Word Heritage Properties in order to analyze the ecological value of the site. We found the following: the property exhibits intersecting geographic characters of vegetation and extensive floral components; high relative species richness; special adaptations shown by dwarf poplar forests that developed under harsh climatic conditions and poor substrate; two distinct sequences of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation succession that has developed in this area, and patch dynamic succession model on block lava and pahoehoe lava was more random and efficient than the normal succes-sion model. All of the above-mentioned characteristics show the on-going biological and ecological process and the outstanding ecological values of the property. We hope that our results will promote further scientific research and protection in this area.
    GIS analysis of the spatial relationship between plateau pika burrow dis-tribution and vegetation distributional patterns
    Bo Ma, Xiaoming Wang, Xiaoqing Liu, Zhenghuan Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  71-78.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08080
    Abstract ( 3278 )   PDF (454KB) ( 3193 )   Save
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    The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a keystone species in alpine meadow ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, ecological studies of the relationship between plateau pika habitat use and the stability of alpine meadows are important. However, little information is available about large-scale spatial relationships between plateau pika habitat use and vegetation distribution. Therefore, we studied this topic using Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses. The number and position of active plateau pika bur-rows were sampled along seven line transects totaling 2,423 sampling units, 19 km in length, in a 44 km2 study area in Yunbo Gou, Shiqu County, Sichuan Province during September 2008. Historically, domestic livestock grazing and other human activities were rare in this area. A no-grazing policy has been in effect since 2006, thereby removing livestock competition in the study area. Normalized Difference Vegetation In-dex (NDVI) values within the study area were extracted from a CBERS-02 remote sensing image taken Sep-tember 18th, 2008. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area was established based on a digitized topographical map of Shiqu County, and slope values within the study area were subsequently extracted us-ing the DEM. NDVI and slope values were compared with the number of plateau pika burrows in each sam-pling unit. A Bonferroni z test revealed that numbers of pika burrows were lower than expected in units with low NDVI values (NDVI of 0.1–0.3), not different than expected in middle NDVI groups (0.3–0.4), and higher than expected in high NDVI groups (0.4–0.6). A linear regression model found a significant positive correlation between NDVI value and pika burrow count (y = 16.50 x + 0.87; R2 = 0.78, P < 0.001). In con-trast, no linear relationship was detected between slope and pika burrow number (linear regression, R2 = 0.04, P = 0.441). This study showed that plateau pikas use areas with higher vegetation coverage more than areas with lower vegetation coverage in the absence of livestock competition. Our results lend some support to the conclusion that the pika’s natural use of vegetation does not accelerate the destruction of the alpine meadow vegetation in this region.
    Comparison of fish fauna of two different waters (Minjiang Estuary and Xinghua Bay) of the East China Sea during spring and summer
    Zhaoli Xu
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  79-84.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.06113
    Abstract ( 2633 )   PDF (550KB) ( 3127 )   Save
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    Based on the data from four oceanographic censuses taken by trawlboat in the Minjiang Estuary and Xinghua Bay in April (spring) and September (summer) of 2008, the species composition, similarity (Ochilai coefficient) and ecological adaptation of fish assembles in these areas were studied. The results in-dicated that in Xinghua Bay, a total of 108 species of fish was identified, among which 48 species occurred in spring and 81 species in summer respectively. Trachurus japonicus was one of the keystone species in spring of Xinghua Bay, The other species, including Chaeturichthys stigmatias were common species. In summer, Polynemus sextarius became keystone species and the other species, including Dasyatis akajei, were com-mon ones. In the Minjiang Estuary, 77 species were identified, among which 36 species occurred in spring and 57 species in summer. Both Coilia mystus and Harpodon nehereus were dominant species during spring. In the studied areas, species number of warm water species was highest of all, the proportions of which were as high as 76.62% in total number of species in the Minjiang Estuary and 75.00% in Xinghua Bay. In view of salinity adaptation, the coastal species and the nearshore species were most diversified, with a proportion of 91.67% in total species number of the Xinghua Bay and 87.01% of the Minjiang Estuary. And there were more estuarine species in the Minjiang Estuary comparing with Xinghua Bay. The similarity values between the species compositions of the two waters were higher than the similarities between different seasons re-spectively in each area. Thus, in studied areas, the species variations of the fishes were mainly determined by seasonal change, while the salinity variation was a minor one.
    Effect of soil factors on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline alkaline soils of Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia
    Min Sheng, Ming Tang, Fengfeng Zhang, Yanhui Huang
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  85-92.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08145
    Abstract ( 3006 )   PDF (407KB) ( 3044 )   Save
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    In order to explore abuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal resources and reveal the relationship be-tween soil factors and AM fungal diversity, we collected soil samples from the rhizosphere of main plants in saline alkaline soils of Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. A total of 28 AM fungal species were identified. Of these, 20 species belonged to the genus Glomus, 2 to Diversispora, 2 to Archaeospora, and 4 to Acau-lospora. The frequencies of G. intraradices and Ar. leptotichum were the highest. Correlation analysis re-vealed that AM fungal species richness was significantly correlated with the contents of soil organic matter and available N, while Shannon-Wiener diversity index was significantly related with soil organic matter content. Path analysis revealed that organic matter had an significantly direct negative influence on Shan-non-Wiener diversity index; Cl, CO32–, K+, Mg2+, organic matter, available P and available K directly im-pacted Shannon-Wiener diversity index, while HCO3, Na+, Ca2+, SO42–, soluble salt, pH value and available N indirectly affected Shannon-Wiener diversity index; Cl, CO32–, HCO3, Na+, Ca2+, organic matter, avail-able P and available K directly impacted AM fungal species richness, while SO42–, K+, soluble salt, Mg2+, pH value and available N indirectly affected AM fungal species richness. Redundancy analysis revealed that the relative abundance of 14 AM fungal species was significantly correlated with soil factors. Our results indicate that there are plenty of AM fungal species in the saline alkaline soils of the three regions, and AM fungal diversity is related with nutrient status and contents of soluble saline and ions in soils.
    Patterns of seed predation and dispersal of an endangered rare plant Or-mosia hosiei by Edward’s long-tailed rats and Chinese white-bellied rats
    Xin Liu, Zhengkun Wang, Zhishu Xiao
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  93-96.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.04197
    Abstract ( 3000 )   PDF (259KB) ( 3272 )   Save
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    Ormosia hosiei (Papilionaceae) is a rare and endangered plant native to China. Currently, it is not understood how seed predation and dispersal by animals affect natural regeneration of the species. During the autumn of 2009, we investigated patterns of predation and hoarding by Edward’s long-tailed rats (Leopolda-mys edwardsi) and Chinese white-bellied rats (Niviventor confucianus) of Ormosia hosiei seeds using large semi-natural enclosures in Dujiangyan City of Sichuan Province, southwest China. Both rodent species ate Ormosia hosiei seeds, but their hoarding patterns differed. Chinese white-bellied rats larder-hoarded more seeds in the nest and thus may have a negative impact on seed dispersal while Edward’s long-tailed rats scat-ter-hoarded more seeds and thus may have a positive impact on seed dispersal. In conclusion, our study indi-cates that compared with other rodent species as seed predators, scatter-hoarding rodents as seed dispersers may play a significant role in seed dispersal and subsequent establishment of this endangered plant.
    Reintroduction of rare and endangered plants: theories and practices
    Xiang Zhou, Jiangyun Gao
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  97-105.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.09101
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    Reintroduction is defined as an attempt to establish a species in an area which was once part of its historical range, but from which it has been extirpated or become extinct. As an important strategy for species conservation and population restoration, reintroduction is increasingly applied to the conservation of rare and endangered plants. However, reintroduction is often a relatively high-risk and high-cost activity, and needs to be conducted under the direction of sound theories and reasonable techniques. Plant reintroductions often face specific challenges. Orchid reintroductions, particularly, are often confronted with more specific diffi-culties. Reintroduction, when combined with research efforts into ecology, pollination biology, propagation science, mycology, and population genetic diversity is termed integrated conservation, and has been demon-strated as an effective orchid conservation strategy. Based on scientific literature, this paper provides an overview of the reintroduction of rare and endangered plants in terms of definitions, criteria for success, theories and methods, and also summarizes the possible risks and problems of plant reintroduction.
    Distinguishing early-acting inbreeding depression from late-acting ovar-ian self-incompatibility
    Yiqi Hao, Xinfeng Zhao
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  106-112.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07124
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    Reduced seed yields after self-pollination are generally thought to be induced by early-acting in-breeding depression and self-incompatibility. Early-acting inbreeding depression occurs strictly post-zygoti- cally, and leads to the abortion of progeny that are homozygous for deleterious recessive alleles at an early stage of seed maturation. Late-acting ovarian self-incompatibility, on the other hand, may be either pre- or post-zygotic, and usually only one locus is responsible for the rejection. In the pre-zygotic late-acting self-incompatibility, the selfed pollen tube may grow to the ovary or penetrate the ovule, but cannot fertilize the ovule. Post-zygotic self-incompatibility, referred to as an abortion, occurs shortly after fertilization, and is a result of the interaction between the maternal plant and the zygotes. Based on differences between these two phenomena, eight methods have been proposed to distinguish between them. Three of them are used to identify the timing of the abortion, pre- or post-zygotic, including anatomical observation, comparison be-tween the seed set following self-pollination and chase-pollination, and using linear regression models to test whether the sum of mature and aborted seeds remains constant. The key to distinguishing post-zygotic self-incompatibility from early-acting inbreeding depression is to judge whether the reduction in seed yield after self-pollination is controlled by a single locus or the expression of deleterious alleles involving multiple loci, or to focus on the phenotypes associated with these two genetic basis.
    Analysis for the main elements and potential impacts of Nagoya Protocol
    Dayuan Xue
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  113-119.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07001
    Abstract ( 5039 )   PDF (214KB) ( 3379 )   Save
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    The adoption of Nagoya Protocol (the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diver-sity) in the 10th Conference of Parties (COP10) (Nagoya, Japan, October 2010), is a key step to fully realize the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), especially the third objective of fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources. To negotiate the interna-tional regime for access and benefit-sharing (ABS)of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge (TK) is a main mandate of CBD in the past 10 years, and for implementation of the mandate, the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on ABS was established in 2000. This working group convened altogether nine meetings during 2001 to 2010, of which the ninth meeting extended three resumed meetings till the COP10 because the negotiation is very difficult. The main elements of Nagoya Protocol are objective; scope; access to genetic resources and associated TK (subject to prior informed consent, PIC); fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated TK based on mutually agreed terms (MAT); measures to ensure compliance including disclosure of source and origin of genetic resources, certi-fication of genetic resources with compliance, and check points for monitoring utilization of genetic re-sources; capacity buildings; etc. The core issue during the negotiation is whether derivative can be included in definition of genetic resources and another is how to monitor utilization of genetic resources. Duo to the strong argument, in the Protocol, the requirement of disclosure was not adopted, the check points were also not strongly required for monitoring, and in addition, the version is not very clear for the benefit-sharing of the genetic resources collected in the western gene banks accessed in the past time. As China is one of the mega-biodiversity countries and an important provider of genetic resources in the world, the adoption and implementation of Nagoya Protocol will be significant for China to enhance biodiversity conservation and to promote benefit-sharing with users. In particular China need to enhance legislation on ABS in national level.
    Biodiversity of orchids in remnant native forests in Nujiang Valley, Yun-nan Province, China
    Xiaohua Jin, Xiaoguo Xiang, Bin Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2011, 19 (1):  120-123.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.04238
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    The biodiversity of low elevation portions of Nujiang Valley has largely been ignored. Here, we illustrate the biodiversity richness of this region using the orchid flora as an example. We investi-gated orchid species diversity in remnant forests at four sites below 1,600 m elevation along the Nujiang River. In total, at least 60 species in 33 genera were recorded at these four sites, including one species (Eria sp.) that is either undescribed or new to the Chinese flora, two locally endemic species (Trias verru-cosa and Liparis rockii), and seven species not previously recorded in this region, i.e. Cypripedium sp., Gas-trochilus calceolaris, Ornitochilus difformis, Taeniophyllum glandulosum, Bulbophyllum spathula-tum, Tropidia curculigoides, and Epipactis royleana. Major threats to these orchids include habitat fragmentation and loss. Our results highlight the urgent need for field surveys of this region’s biodiver-sity. We present strategies to conserve biodiversity in this region.

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