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Measurement of biotic community diversity I α diversity (Part 2)
Biodiv Sci    1994, 02 (4): 231-239.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1994038
Abstract5063)      PDF (585KB)(11448)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(83)
Measurement of biotic community diversity I α diversity (Part 1)
Biodiv Sci    1994, 02 (3): 162-168.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1994027
Abstract3168)      PDF (584KB)(2370)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(78)
DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of lenok (Brachymystax lenok) populations in China
Yingzhe Xia, Yan Sheng, Yiyu Chen
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (1): 48-54.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050189
Abstract4148)      PDF (303KB)(3082)       Save
Brachymystax lenok (Salmonidae) is an economically important fish species in China whose population is currently declining due to overexploitation and environmental pollution. Recently it has been listed as a threatened species in the China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals. To study the genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern of its populations is important for addressing the systematics, evolution, and effective conservation of this species. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (835 bp) were obtained by PCR amplification of 71 individuals of Brachymystax lenok from seven populations in China’s eastern river systems. A total of 43 (5.1%) nucleotides were variable, resulting in a total of 15 haplotypes. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a high proportion of the total genetic variance was attri- butable to variations among regions (63.55%), whereas 24.17% and 12.28% occurred among populations within regions and within populations, respectively. A molecular phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggested that the 15 haplotypes were assigned to three clades associated with geographic regions. There were no shared haplotypes found among regions. The pattern of phylogenetic dis-continuity, which is associated with spatial separation, is a result of both historical (long-term, zoogeographic barriers to gene flow) and contemporary (limited dispersal and gene flow capabilities) factors. Based on these results, we propose that each of the three evolutionarily distinct groups of lenok populations should be protected from loss of biodiversity. It is highly recommended that management efforts should be focused on riv-erine conservation, avoiding translocations from the populations of different regions.
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Cited: Baidu(59)
Community structure and species composition of an evergreen broadleaved forest in Tiantong’s 20 ha dynamic plot, Zhejiang Province, eastern China
Qingsong Yang, Zunping Ma, Yubin Xie, Zhiguo Zhang, Zhanghua Wang, Heming Liu, Ping Li, Na Zhang, Dali Wang, Haibo Yang, Xiaofeng Fang, Enrong Yan, Xihua Wang
Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (2): 215-223.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.09013
Abstract3557)      PDF (417KB)(3604)       Save

Evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) is a typical vegetation type in low elevation regions in eastern China. The permanent plot-based approach to community analysis is fundamentally important for revealing mechanisms of biodiversity maintenance. In this study, community structure and species composition were investigated and analyzed using a 20-ha permanent plot in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province. Our results were as follows: (1) we counted a total of 94,603 individuals, belonging to 152 species, 94 genera and 51 families. The three most dominant families were Theaceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae. The genera present were dominated by tropical (52.1% in total) and temperate (42.6% in total) floras; (2) species in the evergreen life form were dominant with a community importance value of 80.3%. The three most dominant species were Eurya loquaiana, Litsea elongata and Choerospondias axiliaris. Fifty five species were considered rare; (3) the size distribution of all trees followed a reverse “J” shape; and (4) evergreen species showed a greater resprouting ability than deciduous species. In conclusion, with rich species composition and a mature community structure, the EBLF in Tiantong region is typical of this vegetation type.

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Cited: Baidu(44)
Biodiversity and ecosystem stability
Biodiv Sci    1995, 03 (1): 31-37.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1995006
Abstract3384)      PDF (640KB)(3862)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(32)
Low frequencies of transgene flow between Bt/CpTI rice and their non-transgenic counterparts under alternating cultivation
Jun Rong, Zhiping Song, Jun Su, Hui Xia, Feng Wang, Bao-Rong Lu
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (4): 309-314.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060025
Abstract3784)      PDF (269KB)(3815)       Save
With the fast development of biotechnology, many transgenic crops have been developed and are in the pipelines for environmental release or commercialization. Crop-to-crop transgene flow from transgenic to non-transgenic rice varieties will affect seed purity of non-transgenic rice varieties, which might lead to unwanted biosafety problems. To assess the probability of transgene outflow in rice (Oryza sativa), gene flow experiments were conducted at two confined biosafety experimental sites in Fuzhou of Fujian Province and Sanya of Hainan Province, with the field design of alternating rows of transgenic rice lines and non-transgenic varieties. Three transgenic rice lines containing two insect-resistance genes (Bt/CpTI) and their non-transgenic counterparts (isogenic lines) were used in the experiments to achieve high levels of spontaneous outcrossing. A hygromycin resistance gene tightly linked with the target transgenes was used as a selective marker for identifying transgenic hybrids. Based on examination of 70,056 geminated seeds, we observed low frequencies of transgene outflow (0.275–0.832%) under cultivation of alternating rows between transgenic rice and its non-transgenic counterparts. This result of low crop-to-crop transgene flow in rice at such close spacing can provide scientific support for the safe use of transgenic rice in terms of “contamina-tion” of non-transgenic rice caused by pollen-mediated transgene outflow, if certain isolation measures are taken.
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Cited: Baidu(27)
Measurement of biotic community diversity:II β diversity
Biodiv Sci    1995, 03 (1): 38-43.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1995007
Abstract3044)      PDF (408KB)(4531)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(26)
Measurement of biotic community diversity III Statistical issue related to species-abundance distribution
Biodiv Sci    1995, 03 (3): 157-169.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1995029
Abstract3077)      PDF (643KB)(2254)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(26)
Re-evaluating the character and application of density-group index (DG)
Chonghui Liao, Jianxiong Li
Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (2): 127-134.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08171
Abstract3054)      PDF (678KB)(3626)       Save
The DG index is established to evaluate the diversity of soil animal community. The theoretical basis of the DG index is that the non-interference and mutual benefit relationships are stronger than competition among soil animal groups, thus each group considered in the formula is independent. The DG index indicates the abundance and the importance of species implicitly. Since 1990, DG index has been successfully applied in the studies in different geographic locations and ecosystems with different soil animal communities. Compared with Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), the community diversity evaluated by the DG index is much more consistent with the actual habitat conditions in most cases. The scenario analysis demonstrates that Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) may conflict with DG index if the differences in species and evenness are in contrary values (+ vs – ) in two communities. We re-evaluated the features of soil animal community diversity and the applications of different indices, and found that it is not suitable to use the evenness as an important index because the homogeneity of quantitative distribution of soil animal commu-nity is rare in reality. Although the DG index is simple, it has been tested widely in various situations and holds a good potential as an index of soil animal diversity.
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Cited: Baidu(23)
Causal analysis on diversity of medusa in the East China Sea
Zhaoli Xu, Mao Lin
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (6): 508-516.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060066
Abstract2879)      PDF (446KB)(4024)       Save
Based on the maritime data collected from 23°30′–33°00′ N and 118°30′–128°00′ E of the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997–2000, we analyzed the dynamics of medusa diversity and the causes. A total of 103 medusa species were observed, which were mainly distributed in southern and northern offshore of the East China Sea. Higher species diversity indices (H′) of medusa occurred, respectively, in the southern part of the sea, offshore, and in summer and winter. The number of species was closely correlated with H′ value, whereas the abundance was not correlated with it significantly. The lower H′ value nearshore in spring and autumn resulted from the aggregation of Muggiaea atlantica nearshore of Zhejiang Province and Diphyes chamissonis at the Yangtze River estuary. Water temperature, followed by salinity, was main environmental factor influencing the distribution of species diversity. H′ value was related to the water temperature of 10 m layer in winter and spring, while it is associated with surface water temperature in summer and with 10 m-salinity-layer in autumn. The isoline distribution of H′ value reflected the direction of currents and changes in water masses in the East China Sea, the H′ isoline was a good indicator for analyzing the East Sea cold masses.
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Cited: Baidu(20)
Pollination biology of Anisodus tanguticus (Solanaceae)
Yuanwen Duan, Tingfeng Zhang, Jianquan Liu,
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (6): 584-591.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070108
Abstract3783)      PDF (295KB)(3400)       Save
Self-incompatibility occurs widely in the Solanaceae, but a few species in this family, or a few intraspecific populations or a few individuals within the populations are highly self-compatible and their breeding systems have evolved from outcrossing to selfing. We studied pollination biology of Anisodus tanguticus from this family, a perennial endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This species flowers in the early summer and probably suffers from the serious limitations of the outcrossing pollinator. We aimed to test whether the breeding systems of a few individuals in this species have shifted from outcrossing to selfing. Our experiments and observations were conducted in two populations with different altitudes. Most flowers of this species were incompletely protogynous, and the mean distance between the stigma and anthers decreased gradually with floral longevity. Both stigma and anthers did not come into touch when the corolla wilted in most of the monitored flowers and such herkogamy favours outcrossing. However, the complete contact of stigma and anthers in 4.9% of the measured flowers suggested potential occurrence of “autonomous selfing” in these flowers. Most of the examined individuals in both populations are self-incompatible and have to depend on insects for pollination. However, a few of them were found to be self-compatible. Flies were the effective outcrossing pollinators in the high altitude population and “autonomous selfing” was detected in a few individuals of this population. In contrast, the effective outcrossing pollinators were rarely observed in the low altitude population and the dominant visitors or pollinators, ants in this population, transferred pollen within the single flower, which finally resulted in “facilitated selfing”. Pollination limita-tions were obvious in both populations due to the lack of enough outcrossing pollinators. Two different self-ing mechanisms, uncovered here, may provide a partial compensation for the natural reproduction of this al-pine species in the arid alpine habitats when flowering at the early summer.
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Cited: Baidu(20)
Asymmetric interaction and its effects on the meta-population dynamics in co-evolved fig–fig wasps systems
Cheng Lu, Yupeng Geng, Ruiwu Wang
Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (3): 264-269.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.06089
Abstract2802)      PDF (302KB)(2270)       Save
Interactions among co-evolved species has been assumed to operate in a symmetrical manner, resulting in stable equilibrium or evolutionary stable strategies for the observed species. However, recent observational and experimental data highlight the existence of asymmetrical interactions, which may lead to meta-populations or non-equilibrium states (e.g. chaos) between co-evolved species. Here, we explore the asymmetrical interaction in the classic ‘fig–fig wasp’ co-evolution model system and show how such asymmetric interactions may produce meta-populations. It is well known that there are two different kinds of fig wasps inhabiting fig fruits (i.e. pollinator wasps and non-pollinating exploiter wasps). Exploiter wasps have a fitness advantage over pollinator wasps because they do not pay the cooperative cost. However, figs can effectively restrict exploiter wasps, and reward the pollinator wasps, resulting in complex asymmetric interactions among species. Specifically, the discriminative restriction of paretic wasps by fig trees will cause drastic population decreases or even local extinction of the exploiter species in some fig trees, syconia, or associated habitats. In patches where populations of exploiters are low or extinct, pollinator wasps will immigrate leading to concomitant population size increases due to the high reward of fig trees. The prosperity of pollinator wasps will then attract more exploiters, and population increases of exploiter wasps will lead to the sanction by fig trees again. Over the long term, populations of different wasps will chaotically oscillate either temporally or evolutionary through asymmetric interactions.
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Cited: Baidu(17)
On the concept of biodiversity
Biodiv Sci    1993, 01 (1): 20-22.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1993005
Abstract4810)      PDF (277KB)(10453)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(16)
A multi-scale assessment of habitat suitability of red-crowned crane at the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, Shandong, China
Mingchang Cao, Gaohuan Liu, Kai Shan, Yinxu Hou, Mingchun Wang, Donglai Li, Wenming Shen
Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (3): 283-291.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.283
Abstract2981)      PDF (459KB)(3418)       Save

Scale is a critical factor in species ecology, and multi-scale approaches can potentially better depict the relationship of the bird species and environment. Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve(YRDNR)is a important site for red-crowned crane during migration and wintering. By using habitat suitability models and varying the spatial scale from 10 to 1,500 ha, we developed univariate models to analyze contributions of each environmental factor at each spatial scale to red-crowned crane occurrence. Moreover, multivariate models at single and multi-scales were built to seek optimum habitat suitability model. The results showed that univariate models varied among the environmental factors and with spatial scales. Within multivariate models, the single-scale model at the 50 ha scale performed best. The multi-scale model, in which each environmental variable was entered at the scale at which it had performed best in the univariate model, was superior to all single-scale models. Moreover, the results showed that the suitable habitat area of red-crowned crane in the southern part of YRDNR is far more than in the north. For effective protection of red-crowned crane habitat in YRDNR, we suggest that monitoring, assessment, reassignment of wetland should be strengthened and human disturbance should be under surveillance.

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Cited: Baidu(15)
Ficus—a keystone plant species in the tropical rain forest ecosystem of south Yunnan
Biodiv Sci    1994, 02 (1): 21-23.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1994004
Abstract2569)      PDF (237KB)(2097)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(15)
Regeneration dynamics of major tree species during 2002–2007 in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in East China
Yinhua Wang, Xiangcheng Mi, Shengwen Chen, Minghong Li, Mingjian Yu
Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (2): 178-189.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.12244
Abstract2949)      PDF (623KB)(2883)       Save

To explore the regeneration dynamics of major tree species in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, a 5-ha dynamic plot was established in 2002. All woody plants with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1 cm were tagged, mapped, measured and identified to species. Based on data from one census each in 2002 and 2007, we analyzed the characteristics of dead and recruited individuals to estimate mortality and recruitment rates, and population change for 43 tree species. The results showed the following: (1) A total of 4,758 stems were recruited and 1,384 died during the five years, and the stem increment ratio was consequently 26.05%. (2) The amounts of recruits within three growth forms (tree, subtree or shrub, and sub-shrub) all declined as DBH size class increased; a pattern different from that observed in dead individuals. (3) The average annual mortality and recruitment rate of these 43 tree species was 2.26% and 5.90%, respectively. (4) Comparing mortality and recruitment rates in each DBH class, we found that 19 subtree or shrub species consistently had higher recruitment than mortality rates in small DBH class, and almost no difference in both middle and large DBH classes. (5) 31 out of 43 species showed population growth, while 12 species’ populations declined slightly. Populations of 10 species increased or decreased at an annual rate of >5%, indicating that they were experiencing fast turnover. Among these, Chimonanthus salicifolius (45.13%) and Itea oblonga (16.35%) had the highest increment rate in population size, whereas Loropetalum chinense (–3.10%) and Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata (–1.86%) had the highest rate of decline. In conclusion, both recruitment and mortality rates varied among species and among DBH size classes, pointing to the unique regeneration dynamics of the 43 tree species. These differences might be associated with patterns of density dependence in addition to habitat fluctuations.

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Cited: Baidu(15)
Bacteria diversity in paddy field soil by 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis in Ningxia
Jianping Zhang, Naiyuan Dong, Haobin Yu, Yongjun Zhou, Yongliang Lu, Ruimei Geng, Liuqing Yu
Biodiv Sci    2008, 16 (6): 586-592.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08118
Abstract5689)      PDF (383KB)(6395)       Save
Rice is one of the most important crops in the Ningxia region of China, and rice planting helps to maintain ecosystem balance and prevent land desertification. Soil microbial diversity provides basic functions for rice field soil ecosystems. To better understand bacterial diversity and community composition in Ningxia paddy soil, the total bacterial DNA was extracted from paddy soil collected from a typical rice field of Ningxia using the culture independent method. A 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) clone library of soil bacteria was constructed. The 16S rDNA fragments were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Further sequencing and cluster analysis were conducted to elucidate the bacterial diversity. Over 23 kb DNA fragments were obtained from the paddy soil and 74 MspI restriction endonuclease types were detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequence analysis revealed that 77.3% of clone sequences were similar to those of uncultured bacteria in the environment, while only 22.7% clone sequences were most closely related to those of cultured bacteria in GenBank, suggesting great potential for undeveloped bacterial resources was available in paddy fields. Our phylogenetic analysis found that the sequenced clones fell into 12 major lineages within the domain bacteria. Among them, members of the Proteobacteria were the dominant group, accounting for 37.8%, including -Proteobacteria (13.5%), γ-Proteobacteria (12.2%), δ-Proteobacteria (6.8%) and -Proteobacteria (5.4%), followed by Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes division with 16.2%, 12.2%, 10.8%, 10.8%, 8.1%, respectively. Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia were less well represented. Our study revealed an extensive diversity of soil bacteria in a paddy field in Ningxia.
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Cited: Baidu(13)
Species-specificity and coevolution of figs and their pollinating wasps
Yan Chen, Hongqing Li, Min Liu, Xiaoyong Chen
Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.001
Abstract2679)      PDF (258KB)(3533)       Save

Mutualism is one of the most important ecological interactions, with strong influences on almost all levels of biological systems. Their long-term persistence raises many challenging evolutionary questions, especially those involving high-level coevolution and coadaptation. Figs and their pollinating wasps are among the most tightly integrated mutualisms known, and provide a model system for developing and testing theories of coevolution. Initial studies suggested specific coevolution between them, described as the famous rule of one fig one wasp. However, more and more exceptions have been revealed by recent studies, and cryptic species in pollinating wasps and host switching were found common in some regions and within some Ficus groups, inducing debates on the levels of species specificity and coevolution. A broad-sense coevolution model to describe the relationship of the related groups of figs and their pollinating wasps was proposed recently. The diverse relationships between figs and their pollinating wasps indicated coexistence of both specific and diffuse coevolution in this mutualism system, producing different species-specificity level. However, which model is the dominant one in this system is still keeping open. The species specificity could be tight or loose in different regions and fig groups involved. Consequently, the frequencies and mechanisms of breakdowns of the one-to-one rule within different fig groups as well as in different regions are essential for the understanding of the relative importance of the competing finer-scale cospeciation or broad-sense co-evolution models.

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Cited: Baidu(12)
Phylogeography of Typha laxmannii in the northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent areas
Zhenjie Ding,Dan Yu,Xinwei Xu
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (6): 759-766.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015109
Abstract578)   HTML3)    PDF (382KB)(2178)       Save

Quaternary climatic oscillation had a significant role in the patterns of geographic distribution and genetic structure of plants occurring in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas. In this study, we examined the phylogeographical structure of Typha laxmannii in the northeast QTP and adjacent areas based on 15 populations and 148 individuals using sequences of chloroplast rpl32-trnL and nuclear phytochelatin synthase gene. Two chloroplast haplotypes and eight nuclear haplotypes were found. All haplotypes were shared and no private haplotype was fixed in plateau populations. The genetic diversity of the populations in adjacent areas based on chloroplast DNA and nuclear DNA was four and two times greater than that of plateau populations, respectively. Genetic differentiation among plateau populations, which mainly existed between the eastern and western populations, was higher than that among adjacent areas. Our results indicate that the present patterns of genetic diversity and genetic structure of T. laxmannii in the northeast QTP and its adjacent areas were caused by postglacial recolonization from at least two refugia to plateau platform and a resulting founder effect.

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Cited: Baidu(11)
Recent advancement in microbial environmental research using metagenomics tools
Xin Sun,Ying Gao,Yunfeng Yang
Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (4): 393-400.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08050
Abstract2139)   HTML8)    PDF (247KB)(6704)       Save

Metagenomics is the study of microbial meta-genomes from environmental samples, which is independent on the ability to cultivate microbes in the laboratory. It provides a new way of examining the microbial world and has been widely used in microbiological research for the past decade. Sequencing-based metagenomic technology, represented by 454 and Illumina sequencing platforms, and microarray-based technology, often using GeoChip, are two of the most commonly used technologies in metagenomics. Sequencing-based technologies are capable of detecting new microbes and genes, but are limited with regard to sequence depth and quantification, and present problems of contamination when used on complex microbial communities. Microarray-based technologies are complementary to sequencing-based technologies in regard to advantages and disadvantages. They have been widely used, for example, in studies of climate change, energy, engineering, metallurgy, extreme environments and human health. However, their use in examining the extremely complex and diverse microbial world merits further technical development, with a focus on integrating both technologies and the development of appropriate bioinformatics tools.

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Cited: Baidu(11)
Overview of higher plant diversity in China
Lisong Wang,Yu Jia,Xianchun Zhang,Haining Qin
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (2): 217-224.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015049
Abstract1778)   HTML10)    PDF (535KB)(3269)       Save

According to an overview of higher plant diversity in China, China has 35,112 native species of higher plants belonging to 3,818 genera and 454 families. Among them, there are 3,045 bryophyte species in 602 genera and 151 families, 2,124 pteridophyte species in 176 genera and 38 families, 227 gymnosperm species in 37 genera and 8 families, and 29,716 angiosperm species in 3,003 genera and 257 families. Comparisons with recent estimates of global species diversity suggests that the species diversity of Chinese bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms account for 18.8%, 17.7%, 22.2% and 11.1%, respectively of the global totals. A total of 212 genera are endemic to China with 7 bryophytes, 2 pteridophytes, 7 gymnosperms, and 196 angiosperms. A total of 17,439 species are endemic to China including 524 bryophytes, 840 pteridophytes, 115 gymnosperms, and 15,960 angiosperms. The percentages of endemic species (POES) for each group in the country are 17.2%, 39.6%, 50.7%, and 53.7%, respectively. This translates to a POES of 49.7% for higher plants (including bryophytes, pteridophytes and seed plants), a POES of 52.8% for vascular plants (including pteridophytes and seed plants), and a POES of 53.7% for seeds plants (including gymnosperms and angiosperms). The top 10 families with highest species diversity are Asteraceae (227 genera/2,315 species), Poaceae (215/1,787), Fabaceae (141/1,631), Orchidaceae (205/1,556), Lamiaceae (103/975), Ranunculaceae (38/957), Rosaceae (53/954), Cyperaceae (32/871), Ericaceae (22/841), and Rubiaceae (94/696). The top 12 families with highest endemic genera are Gesneriaceae (26 genera), Asteraceae (18), Orchidaceae (14), Lamiaceae (11), Apiaceae (9), Brassicaceae (9), Apocynaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Melastomataceae (5), Boraginaceae (4), Rubiaceae (4), and Ranunculaceae (4). The top 10 genera with highest species diversity are Rhododendron (588 species), Carex (537), Astragalus (420), Pedicularis (363), Corydalis (357), Primula (310), Saussurea (293), Salix (279), Impatiens (274), and Gentiana (255). The top 10 genera with highest endemic species are: Rhododendron (433 species), Pedicularis (283), Carex (273), Corydalis (258), Astragalus (237), Impatiens (234), Primula (222), Berberis (209), Elatostema (207), and Saussurea (196). Diversity bearing with more than 5,000 species among the seven Chinese provinces is as follows: Yunnan (15,900 species), Sichuan (10,374), Tibet (7,629), Guangxi (7,399), Guizhou (6,405), Guangdong (5,498) and Taiwan (5,290). Among the 17 mega-diversity countries China is ranked the fourth when ordered by total species diversity and, seventh when ordered by POES.

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Cited: Baidu(10)
Temporal and spatial variation of macrofaunal communities in Shenzhen Bay intertidal zone between 1995 and 2010
Lizhe Cai, Xinwei Chen, Chen Wu, Xin Peng, Jing Cao, Sujing Fu
Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (6): 702-709.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08124
Abstract2744)      PDF (556KB)(2568)       Save
Using macrofaunal data collected at five transects in Shenzhen Bay intertidal zone between 1995 and 2010, we analyzed density, species diversity index (H'), richness index (d) and multivariate marine biotic index (M-AMBI). We found spatial differences in macrofaunal species number, species diversity, richness index and M-AMBI. Namely, the closer to Shenzhen River a sampling transect was located, the lower the macrofaunal species number, species diversity, richness index and multivariate marine biotic index. The most obvious spatial difference in terms of macrofaunal community structure was that densities of the larger-bodied species Dendronereis pinnaticirris and Neanthes glandicincta were low, while the densities of smaller and short-lived species including Capitella capitata and oligochaete animal were high at transect close to Shenzhen River. Abundance biomass comparison (ABC method) validated the spatial difference. Decreasing distance to the Shenzhen River was also related to increased levels of organic matter. We surmise that the spatial differences we observed were related to industrial, aquacultural and municipal wastes entering the Shenzhen River associated with increasing regional population and development during the study period. Yearly and seasonal variations of macrofaunal species number, density, species diversity index, richness index and multivariate marine biotic index were inconsistent, and we found no obvious trends.
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Cited: Baidu(10)
RAPD molecular markers and genetic diversity among 40 cultivars of Brassica napus in China
Wu Ningfeng, Li Rugang, Wu Xiaoming, Zhu Li, Fan Yunliu, Qian Xiuzhen,
Biodiv Sci    1997, 05 (4): 246-250.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1997042
Abstract2862)      PDF (747KB)(3028)       Save
The genetic diversity and the relationship among 40 cultivars of  Brassica napus  from seven Provinces of China and other countries  Brassica napus  was analyzed by RAPD technique and statistical methods. Cluster analysis showed that the extensive genetic variation existed among 40 cultivars of B. napus. The 40 cultivars were divided into three groups at DNA level. This result has significance for the genetic breeding of Brassica napus.
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Cited: Baidu(9)
Fish community ecology in rocky reef habitat of Ma’an Archipelago. I. Species composition and diversity
Zhenhua Wang, Shouyu Zhang, Qingman Chen, Qiang Xu, Kai Wang
Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (1): 41-50.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10168
Abstract2853)      PDF (596KB)(2589)       Save
Monthly investigations on fish assemblages were carried out in rocky reef habitat (RRH) in the Ma’an Archipelago using multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009, in order to find out the role of RRH in supporting local fish diversity. Fish taxonomic composition and ecological guild groups were used to examine species composition in detail. Indices such as Margalef’s species richness index, Whilm’s species diversity index, Pielou’s species evenness index as well as Pinkas’s IRI were used to analyze the status of fish diversity in RRH. A total of 87 fishes, belonging to 2 classes, 14 orders, 50 families and 73 genera, were collected. Fifty-one fishes from the family Perciformes (accounting 58.6% of the total species), 49 reef fishes (56.3% of the total species) and 7 stocked fishes (8% of the total species) were captured. Sixty-seven percent of total individuals were juveniles. There were 50 warm water fishes, 36 warm temperature fishes and 1 cold temperature fishes. Nineteen species lived on the reef surface, 46 lived in near-ground waters and 22 pelagic fishes frequently appeared in surface waters. Sebastiscus marmoratus was the most dominant ground fish, Nibea albiflora was the most dominant species in near-ground waters and Thryssa kammalensis dominated the surface waters during summer and autumn. We considered 32 fishes to be local species, 55 were seasonal species and another 11 were casual species. Significant seasonal variation was detected; the lowest and highest diversity levels were found, respectively, in February and September. Our studies suggests that rocky reef habitat in Ma’an Archipelago was mostly used by reef fishes and warm water species. Juvenile fishes congregated in large numbers in these habitats during spring and summer. RRH also serves as habitat for fishes released from stock enhancement programs. We conclude that RRH are important coastal habitats because they offer feeding, spawning and nursing grounds for many fishes, especially juveniles of economically-important species. However, fish diversity has dropped in comparison to its original status in RRH habitats. We suggest that more attention should be paid to the management and conservation of rocky reef habitat.
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Ten years accomplishment of Census of Marine Life
Kwang-Tsao Shao
Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (6): 627-634.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08182
Abstract2335)      PDF (697KB)(2445)       Save
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An introduction to CameraData: an online database of wildlife camera trap data
Zhishu Xiao,Xuezhi Wang,Xinhai Li
Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (6): 712-716.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14042
Abstract1830)   HTML5)    PDF (341KB)(1988)       Save

Camera trapping has been used worldwide for wildlife monitoring, and a large number of pictures and video clips have been obtained. A new challenge for camera trapping practitioners is how to effectively store and manage the increasing number of pictures and video clips, and how to quickly generate and present metadata to other researchers, wildlife management organizations and to the public. As an open, interactive-web platform developed by Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CameraData (http://cameradata.ioz.ac.cn) is an online database for storing, analyzing and sharing wildlife photographic data from camera traps. CameraData aims to facilitate quick analysis and multiple uses of camera trap data, and also to provide professional services for wildlife conservation and management. The establishment of CameraData will benefit data sharing, collaboration and information services for wildlife monitoring in China and other parts of the world. This paper briefly introduces the key tools, main functions and tips for CameraData.

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Observations of China’s forest change (2000-2013) based on Global Forest Watch dataset
Hao Wang,Zhi Lü,Lei Gu,Cheng Wen
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (5): 575-582.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015122
Abstract1404)   HTML1)    PDF (309KB)(2929)       Save

Knowing the status and changes in forests is essential for evaluating biodiversity dynamics and making effective conservation action plans. It is also essential knowledge for public awareness and policy. However, before Hansen and his colleagues published the Global Forest Watch (GFW) data online in 2013, there were no datasets of forest distribution and changes publicly available in China. GFW data was produced using Landsat satellite images, grants free access to the general public to study forest changes at 30 m resolutions, and spans a period from 2000 to 2013. We interpreted this dataset and compared results with other datasets, including the National Forest Inventory, ChinaCover and GlobeLand30. Results show that GFW dataset has reliable accuracy, as its forest distribution highly overlaps with GlobeLand30, which has a producer accuracy of 87%, and a user accuracy of 89% within the forest category. With similar forest definitions of tree cover >20%, the total forest area is 1,780,472 km2 in the year 2000, similar to the National Forest Inventory’s forest area of 1,749,092 km2. While other datasets show forest increases between 2,370-433,810 km2 during 2000-2010, GFW identified a net forest loss of 37,551-42,031 km2 in China. 2008 is a turning point of forest loss, as the area of annual forest loss has a rising trend before, and a declining trend afterwards. The southern provinces of Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi and Yunnan have the most active forest changes. Forest coverage from nature reserves is insufficient, as by the end of 2013, 407 national level nature reserves, occupying more than 60% of China’s total nature reserve area, covered only 5.03% of total forest area. However, nature reserves have positive outcomes, with reduced forest loss (1.39%), compared to the national average rate (3.46%). This is equivalent to reducing deforestation by 1,856 km2, but there is still an overall net loss of 1,200 km2 inside nature reserves.

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Population genetic structure and demographic history of Neosalanx jordani based on cytochrome b sequences
Liang Zhao, Jie Zhang, Zhijin Liu, Muqi Xu, Ming Li
Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (3): 251-261.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.251
Abstract2547)      PDF (524KB)(3672)       Save

To assess the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of Neosalanx jordani, we sequenced complete mitochondrial DNA (1,141 bp) from the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene for 129 individuals from five populations in the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River basins. We identified18 haplotypes, and haplotype diversity was high (h=0.590±0.047). Nucleotide diversity was relatively low (π = 0.00088±0.00011) among all haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic subdivision among individuals within populations and among populations within basins but not between basins, indicating distribution of genetic diversity was inconsistent with contemporary hydrological structure. We suggest that the present complex genetic pattern of N. jordani resulted from multiple unrelated founding dispersal events (long-distance colonization), contiguous population expansion, and restricted gene flow. Demographic analysis revealed that this species may have experienced a relatively recent population expansion, and the majority of mutations occurred 18.97 kyr ago. This timing is consistent with the estimated time of sea level rise and the formation of large-scale appropriate habitats during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Thus, we suggest that all populations, especially those with high genetic diversity, should be separately managed and conserved.

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Rodent community structure of desert-oasis landscape in the middle reaches of the Heihe River
Lingying Shuai, Yanling Song, Junsheng Li, Zhigao Zeng, Jianquan Liu
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (6): 525-533.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060052
Abstract3965)      PDF (284KB)(3306)       Save
By using living trapping, we studied the characteristics of rodent communities in desert-oasis landscape in the middle reaches of the Heihe River, Gansu. Field study was carried out from April to May, and September in 2005. A total of 4,800 living trappings were set in eight typical habitats, including sand dune, gravel-sandy desert, stabilized sandy desert, desert scrubland, shelter belt, irrigated grassland, irrigated crop field and riverine grassland. In total, 254 individuals representing 9 species, 8 genera, and 3 families were captured. We then calculated characteristic indices of community structure for the eight habitats. The species diversity index (Shannon-Wiener index) ranged from 0.6859 (irrigated grassland) to 1.7036 (stabilized sandy desert), while Pielou evenness index ranged from 0.6531 (sand dune) to 1.0000 (riverine grassland). Using Pearson correlation coefficients and hierarchical clustering, we could roughly classify the 8 ro-dent communities as 2 major types, i.e. desert type and oasis type. Desert-type habitats generally harbored higher species diversity and population density. Dipus sagitta showed a high density and was dominant in desert-type habitats, especially in sand dune. Cricetulus barabensis was common in habitats with relatively high vegetation coverage but also recorded in desert-type habitats (sand dune excluded). Among the four jerboa species, only Allactaga sibirica was found in oasis-type habitats. We did not capture any rodent in core region of shelter belt. However, we did record some individuals in the edge region. No significant rela-tionship was found between Shannon-Wiener diversity index and capture rate(r=0.240, P=0.566). Our results suggest that human disturbance in study area may have been beneficial to maintain rodent diversity.
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Exploring the delineation and supervision of ecological protection red-lines in China
Gao Jixi
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (6): 705-707.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015317
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DNA barcoding in surveys of small mammal community: a case study in Lianhuashan, Gansu Province, China
Kai He, Wenzhi Wang, Quan Li, Peipeng Luo, Yuehua Sun, Xuelong Jiang
Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (2): 197-205.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09160
Abstract2536)   HTML0)    PDF (415KB)(2677)       Save

To evaluate the efficiency of DNA barcoding for identifying small mammals, and to enhance current understanding of mammalian diversity in the Lianhuashan Mountains, Gansu, China, standard morphological and DNA barcoding approaches were used to identify 77 small mammal specimens sampled from the Lianhuashan National Nature Reserve, Gansu. Thirteen species identified were assigned to seven families in three orders, among which seven species (Sorex bedfordiae, S. thibetanus, Scapanulus oweni, Apodemus agrarius, Niviventer confucianus, Eospalax smithi and Ochotona curzoniae) are new records for the Lianhuashan Mountains. Apodemus agrarius collected at 2,800 m above sea level is the highest altitude recorded for this species. We compared the success rate and accuracy of morphological and DNA barcoding approaches for identification. We found that morphological diagnosis requires well-preserved specimens and expert taxonomists, while success rate and accuracy of barcoding-based identification was limited by insufficient sequences in the genetic database. We suggest that morphology should still be the foundation and principal approach used for small mammal identification. Currently, DNA barcoding might be used as a complement for checking and correcting morphological mis-diagnosis.

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Leaf out phenology in temperate forests
Caroline A. Polgar,Richard B. Primack
Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (1): 111-116.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.06187
Abstract2322)   HTML1)    PDF (523KB)(2895)       Save

Monitoring phenology, the study of the timing of natural events, is an ancient practice that has experienced renewed relevance for scientific research interest in the wake of awareness of anthropogenic climate change. Spring onset has been occurring significantly earlier in temperate regions worldwide. Leaf out phenology has become particularly well studied is of particular interest because the emergence of leaves in the spring is extremely sensitive to temperature, and the leaf out timing of leaf out in temperate ecosystems marks the onset of the growing season and controls many essential ecosystem processes. This article reviews the current literature concerning the different methods used to study leaf out phenology, the controls on leaf out in temperate woody plants, and the effects of climate change on leaf out phenology. In addition to the traditional method of on-the-ground leaf out monitoring, new methods using remote sensing and dedicated cameras have been developed which allow scientists to track spring onset at a much larger scale than had previously been possible. Further work is needed on how leaf phenology will respond to future climate change, and the implications of this for animals and other species interactions among trophic levels.

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Community ecology comes to a new era
Jingyun Fang
Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (6): 531-532.  
Abstract2162)      PDF (238KB)(4770)       Save
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Roles of vector–virus–plant interactions in biological invasions
Junbo Luan, Shusheng Liu
Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (6): 598-604.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.598
Abstract3018)      PDF (188KB)(3377)       Save

Interactions between vector insects, plant viruses and host plants are complex and diverse. Although much work has been done to study the tripartite relationships, their roles in biological invasions have been rarely explored. The limited case studies available indicate that the interactions may be mediated by the host plant susceptibility to viruses, the suitability of host plants to vector insects, and the insects’ capacity to utilize host plants. When a host plant is highly susceptible to the virus but shows a low level of suitability to the insect, and the insect has a strong capacity to use different host plants, an indirect mutualistic relationship is likely to occur between vector insect and plant virus via their shared host plants. This kind of mutualism can contribute to the widespread invasion of vector insects as well as the epidemics of plant viruses. In view of the significance of the tripartite interactions in biological invasions, future effort should be made to investigate comparatively many more combinations of different species, and various technologies can be used to reveal the physiological and molecular mechanisms of the interactions.

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Camera trapping survey of mammals and birds in Luolong, Tibet
Keji Guo,Pengfei Lu,Shengchao Shi,Zijun Tang,Tong Zhang,Jiawu Xiong,Bingzhang Li,Xuejian Deng
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (9): 1077-1081.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016128
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Interpretation of the work programme of Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services for the period 2014-2018
Yu Tian,Junsheng Li,Cunzi Lan,Xiushan Li
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (4): 543-549.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015028
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Promoted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was established as the first communication platform between scientists and decision makers in the field of biodiversity conservation for improving global biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. As the first work programme of IPBES, the programme for the period 2014-2018 reached a consensus on the platform at the 2nd Plenary Session (held December 2013 in Antalya, Turkey). In this paper, we introduce the framework and its 4 objectives, including assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services around the world using a multiple-scale method, series thematic and methods assessments, capacity building, and identification of deliverables. We also present a detailed description of the elements, deliverables and time arrangements of the work programme’s objectives according to the material discussed during the platform’s 3rd Plenary Session (held January 2015 in Bonn, Germany). In 2014 (one year into the program), the thematic assessment of pollination and food production and the policy support tools for scenario analysis were launched and the scope of synthesis assessment of regions and thematic assessment of land degradation and restoration were defined. As the first intergovernmental, interdisciplinary, cross-domain, and multi-convention platform in the field of biodiversity, IPBES will become an international dialogue and platform in the field of biodiversity, and also a platform for national benefit maximization. It requires the standardization and integration of China's relevant knowledge and information system. To work with the programme, it is suggested China extensively participate in the implementation to strengthen capacity, including enhancing international communicational and internal cooperation, improving basic discipline construction, and encouraging experts and public participation.

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Species abundance–distribution relationship and its interpretation in plant communities on the Songnen grasslands, China
Dayong Han, Yunfei Yang
Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (3): 348-357.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13190
Abstract1363)   HTML0)    PDF (706KB)(2852)       Save

The species abundance–distribution relationship (SAD) is a key issue in biodiversity science, yet there is no consensus about the mechanism that shape the SAD. The two most widely-recognized explanations are Brown’s niche breadth hypothesis and metapopulation dynamics theory. To test these two hypotheses on the Songnen grasslands, we investigated plant species growth-form composition and interpatch distance in Leymus chinensis–forb community patches in 2007 and 2008. We employed a growth-form adaption index (GAI), a measure of species adaptation, as a surrogate for species niche breadth and employed shortest distance to nearest patch to indicate the dispersal and colonization process of plant species. Two-year data showed that a species’ local abundance was positively correlated with this species’ regional distribution. Furthermore, the SAD showed no obvious variation among years. Both abundance and distribution of a species were closely correlated with plant growth-form; species with higher abundance and wider distributions were mainly comprised of rhizomatous root, erect grass-like stem, or erect dicot stem growth forms. By contrast, species with lower abundance and narrow distributions were mainly comprised of basal rosette stem or bushy root growth forms. GAI was both positively and linearly correlated with abundance and distribution of a species. A few species were distributed widely, whereas most species were distributed more narrowly. This result directly supports the niche breadth hypothesis. Shortest distance to nearest patch exhibited a negative power-law correlation with both abundance and distribution of a species, whereas no correlation was detected between species composition similarity index and distance of patch pairs, results which failed to support the metapopulation dynamic theory. We argue that dispersal processes may be an important potential mechanism for shaping the SAD relationship of the plant communities in Songnen Leymus chinensis meadows.

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Three “What”: mission of a botanic garden
Deyuan Hong
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (6): 728-.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016158
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Studies on the reproductive biology of Taihangia rapestris: I Analysis on the habitat of T. repestris
ShenShihua, Lu Wenliang, Wang Fuhsiung
Biodiv Sci    1994, 02 (4): 210-212.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1994034
Abstract2790)      PDF (224KB)(2668)       Save
Through the investigations on the geographical distribution of T. repestris, the habital factors of itsdistribution area,the results show that T. rupestris is strip--shaped distributed disjunctedly and sporadically inthe limestone regions of the eastern margin of Taihang mountain from 600 to 1500m in altitude, and it onlygrows in crevices of shadow slopes. where the climate is hot and rainy in the summer and dry and chilly inthe winter. There is a little soil in the crevices where T. rupestris grows. The soil is characterized by the lowwater-holding capacity, poor organic matter content and extremely high calcium concentration. The community of T. rupestris is composed of very limited number of species. Only 15 species which belonged tonine families and 11 genera were found in the three investigated qudrats. The floristic composition is verysimple and can be classified as typical dry shrubgrass vegetation type. Consequently, it is the special habitatthat may be the direct reason for the endangerment of T. rupestris.
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Polymorphism of exon 2 of MHC Class II B gene in the Chinese concaveeared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota)
Fang Li, Yilin Shu, Hailong Wu
Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (2): 184-192.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.09211
Abstract2503)      PDF (571KB)(2855)       Save
Currently, amphibians are experiencing global population decline, and it is believed that several amphibian mass extinction events were caused by environmental pathogens (such as chytrid fungus). Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in the course of immune response in all jawed vertebrates. MHC gene is considered to be one of the best candidates to analyze animal’s adaptive evolution because its polymorphisms are usually associated with resistance or susceptibility to animal diseases. Here, we report our preliminary research on the allelic diversity of MHC class II B gene from the Chinese concave-eared frog (Odorrana tormota), a species endemic to eastern China. We initially amplified a 180-bp fragment of MHC II exon2 gene in O. tormota using published polymerase chain reaction primers. Based on these results, we successfully obtained sequences of the gene’s flanking regions using a ligation-mediated PCR method. After splicing, we obtained a sequence with length of 2,030 bp including whole exon2 and partial sequences of intron1 and intron2. Then two exon2-specific primers (IIQ1BU/IIQ1BD) were designed for the species and were used to investigate the B gene diversity of a wild population (Huangshan Mt., n=32) using PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, 34 distinct alleles were obtained and 2 to 5 alleles were found per individual. The proportion of variable sites for nucleotide and amino acid sequences across the 34 alleles was 16.17% (33/204) and 26.87% (18/67), respectively, and the majority of variable amino acids were located in antigen binding sites (ABS). Based on cDNA data and individual allelic diversity, we conclude that O. tormota possesses at least three class II B loci. These results showed that though the species exhibits a restricted distribution, the Chinese concave-eared frog displays high diversity at the B loci compared to that of other species in Ranidae. Patterns of nucleotide substitution exhibited the signature of positive selection. For example, in the ABS, dN was significantly greater than dS (P <0.05). This pattern was also echoed by results of a likelihood ratio test, and five amino acid sites under significant positive selection were detected by Bayesian analyses. Finally, topology of a Bayesian phylogenetic tree showed that alleles from different anuran families clustered into unique monophyletic groups, but that alleles from different genera within Ranidae did not form monophyletic groups. For example, an allele of Rana clamitans shared a common lineage with alleles of O. tormota. These results suggested that trans-species evolution may be a mechanism that maintains allelic polymorphism of the MHC II B gene across genera in the family Ranidae.
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