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Current advances of DNA barcoding study in plants
Shuping Ning, Haifei Yan, Gang Hao, Xuejun Ge
Biodiv Sci    2008, 16 (5): 417-425.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08215
Abstract5396)      PDF(pc) (326KB)(5167)       Save
DNA barcoding has become one of hotspots of biodiversity research in the last five years. It is a method of rapid and accurate species identification and recognition using a short, standardized DNA region. DNA barcoding is now well established for animals, using a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI or cox1) as the standard universal barcode. However, in plants, progress has been hampered by slow substitution rates in mitochondrial DNA. A number of different chloroplast regions have been proposed. There has been considerable debate, but little consensus regarding region choice for DNA barcod-ing land plants. Direct comparative assessment of different barcoding regions is now a priority to enable a standard barcoding solution to be agreed in plants. The proposed chloroplast barcoding regions mainly in-clude five coding (rpoB, rpoC1, matK, rbcL, UPA) and three non-coding (trnH-psbA, atpF-atpH, psbK-psbI) regions. In addition, nrITS is also suggested as a potential plant barcode. Limited by the universality and re-solvability of single barcoding region, five combinations of these regions are proposed. In this review, the advance of these barcoding regions, both their universality of primers and resolving power are reviewed. The advantages, standards, workflow and existent dispute of DNA barcoding are summarized.
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Cited: Baidu(108) CSCD(6)
Composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountain
Jian Zhang, Buhang Li, Xuejiao Bai, Zuoqiang Yuan, Xugao Wang, Ji Ye, Zhanqing Hao
Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (4): 385-396.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09102
Abstract3115)      PDF(pc) (1414KB)(2429)       Save
To explore the composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest, 600 25 m2 (5 m×5 m) seedling quadrats were set up in a 25-ha plot of the forest in Changbai Mountain. All seedlings in these quadrats were tagged, measured and identified to species. Based on three seedling censuses between 2006 and 2008, we analyzed species composition, spatial distribution, and inter-annual dynamics of tree seedlings. A total of 21 tree species were recorded in these quadrats, which was consistent with the composition of trees with ≥1 cm diameter at breast height. There was no sig-nificant interannual difference on species composition, but great variations among different seedling sub-plots. There were 11,959 tree seedlings recorded in three censuses, of which Fraxinus mandshurica and Tilia amurensis comprised of 72.75%. The seedling numbers of F. mandshurica, T. amurensis, and Pinus koraien-sis varied greatly among three censuses, while the numbers of other species varied little. Recruit seedlings of 15 species were recorded in three censuses, of which 10 species (T. amurensis, F. mandshurica, P. koraiensis and so on) were found every year. The numbers of recruit seedlings showed great interannual variations among different species and quadrats. Compared spatial distribution of tree seedlings with their seeds and large trees, we found that there were significant differences on individual numbers among different species. For T. amurensis, F. mandshurica, Acer mono, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum, their seeds and seedlings could be found in the entire 25-ha plot. For Ulmus japonica and Maackia amurensis, the distributions of their seed-lings were inconsistent with their seeds and large trees. For T. mandshurica and Malus baccata, with fewer seeds, seedlings, and large trees, the distributions of seedlings were consistent with these of their seeds and large trees.
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Cited: Baidu(101) CSCD(25)
Methods and protocols for plant community inventory
Jingyun Fang, Xiangping Wang, Zehao Shen, Zhiyao Tang, Jinsheng He, Dan Yu, Yuan Jiang,
Zhiheng Wang, Chengyang Zheng, Jiangling Zhu, Zhaodi Guo
Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (6): 533-548.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09253
Abstract7168)      PDF(pc) (661KB)(8983)       Save
A plant community is an assemblage of plant populations that live in certain area, and interact with and adapt to one another in the context of long-term environmental changes. Plant communities maintain global ecosystem functions, and provide food and habitats for animals and other organisms. Plant communities also provide primary resources for human survival and development, and are therefore indispensable to human societies. China is among the countries with the most diverse plant communities in the world. However, no systematic national inventory has been conducted for Chinese plant communities. This fact obstructs exploitation and protection of China’s plant resources, and also hampers the development of the fields of Chinese ecology and geography. There is an urgent need to survey Chinese plant communities using consis-tent methods and protocols. In this paper, we review major concepts in plant community ecology, and pro-pose a framework for developing plant community inventories based on recent progress in community ecol-ogy and our own experience with long-term field surveys. Our framework provides protocols for site selec-tion and plot design, items to be measured in a plot, and measurements of functional traits of dominant spe-cies. We also review protocols for field surveys of large, long-term plots. The protocols proposed in this pa-per are expected to be a base for standardizing methodology for inventory of Chinese plant communities.
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Cited: Baidu(89) CSCD(191)
Measurement of biotic community diversity I α diversity (Part 2)
Biodiv Sci    1994, 02 (4): 231-239.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1994038
Abstract4775)      PDF(pc) (585KB)(11363)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(83)
Variations in community structure of fishery resources and biodiversity in the Laizhou Bay, Shandong
JINXian-Shi, DENG Jing-Yao
Biodiv Sci    2000, 08 (1): 65-72.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000009
Abstract2689)      PDF(pc) (186KB)(3502)       Save
Based on seasonal bottom trawl surveys from 1959 to 1999 , the variations in fishery resources , dominant species composition and community structure were analyzed. The results indicate that the biomass has continuously declined from 1959. The current biomass account for only 3. 3 % , 7. 3 % and 11. 0 % of that in 1959 , 1982 and 1992~1993 , respectively. Although dominant species vary in different seasons , the traditional large- sized demersal species , such as largehead hairtail ( Trichiurus haumela) and small yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) , have been replaced by small pelagic species , such as anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) , half-financhovy ( Setipinna taty ) , gizzard- shad ( Clupanodon punctatus ) , and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis) . The community structure has also changed , while species diversity increased from 1959 to 1982 and then decreased continuously. The disturbance , particularly fishing , may increase the diversity at intermediate intensity , but too high fishing intensity may lead to diversity decrease. At present , the community structure is simple at un-equilibrium state in the Laizhou Bay , the community succession will continue , and the biomass of small pelagic species with high resilience may recover and increase if the disturbance is significantly reduced.
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Cited: Baidu(82) CSCD(92)
Measurement of biotic community diversity I α diversity (Part 1)
Biodiv Sci    1994, 02 (3): 162-168.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1994027
Abstract2795)      PDF(pc) (584KB)(2321)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(78)
Application of ROC curve analysis in evaluating the performance of alien species’ potential distribution models
Yunsheng Wang, Bingyan Xie, Fanghao Wan, Qiming Xiao, Liangying Dai
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (4): 365-372.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060280
Abstract4524)      PDF(pc) (442KB)(4483)       Save
Ecological niche models (ENMs), which are widely employed to predict the potential geographic distribution of species, provide an important tool to quantify the risks imposed by invasive alien species. The problem of how to evaluate the performance of different models has attracted more and more attention. In the present paper, we introduced the principle of the method of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in assessing the accuracy of different ENMs. We predicted the suitable distribution area of Radopholus similis, an important banana toppling disease nematode, with five widely used ENMs and evaluated the performance of different models by ROC curve analysis. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for BIOCLIM, CLIMEX, DOMAIN, GARP, and MAXENT models was 0.810, 0.758, 0.921, 0.903, and 0.950, respectively. Among these, the biggest value of AUC was assigned to MAXENT, indicating that the result gained by MAXENT should be better than the other four models. According to the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA), there was a remarkable difference in AUC between each model except for DOMAIN and GARP.
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Cited: Baidu(75) CSCD(150)
Review and prospects on methodology and affecting factors of soil mi-crobial diversity
Ju Zhou, Ting Lei
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (3): 306-311.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070069
Abstract4683)      PDF(pc) (221KB)(7352)       Save

Soil microorganisms are important components of soil ecosystem and play central roles in biogeochemical cycling such as organic matter decomposition, mineral nutrient release, and energy transformation. Along with the intensive comprehension of the importance of biodiversity and the rapid development of methodology, more and more studies have focused on soil microbial diversity. This review introduces the current development of methodology and affecting factors of soil microbial diversity. We also discussed the directions of future research on soil microbial diversity.

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Cited: Baidu(70) CSCD(85)
Molecular markers derived from EST: their development and applica-tions in comparative genomics
Xiaobai Li, Hairui Cui, Minglong Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (6): 541-547.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060148
Abstract3644)      PDF(pc) (262KB)(4502)       Save
Expressed sequence tags (EST), which have been increasing rapidly in number recently, provide important resources for the development of molecular markers. Compared with conventional markers derived from genomic DNA, the EST-derived markers are a novel type of molecular tool with remarkable advantages such as being easy to develop, more informative, and highly transferable. EST markers have been used in many research fields. In the present paper, five kinds of recently developed EST markers, including EST-PCR, EST-SSR, EST-SNP, EST-RFLP, and EST-AFLP, as well as their development strategies based on bioinformatics, are introduced. Moreover, the applications of these markers in comparative genomics studies, including comparative mapping, genetic diversity evaluation, and phylogenetics and so on, are also reviewed.
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Cited: Baidu(69) CSCD(25)
Soil microbial characteristics as bioindicators of soil health
Lixia Zhou, Mingmao Ding
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (2): 162-171.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060290
Abstract5760)      PDF(pc) (357KB)(7056)       Save
Soil health is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem. In this review, we summarizes the relationship between soil quality and soil microbial characteristics such as soil microbial community structure, soil microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activity in order to illustrate the function of soil microbial characteristics as bio-indicators of soil health. Many studies have showed that the soil nutrient is correlated with the quantity or the composition of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in soils. In general, higher ratio of soil bacteria indicates better soil quality and higher soil nutrient content. Soil microbial bio-mass is closely correlated with soil organic carbon, and the ratios of soil microbial biomass carbon to soil or-ganic carbon(Cmic : Corg) and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) reflect the use efficiency of soil organic C. The activity of soil enzymes are positively correlated with soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Therefore, soil microbial characteristics reflect the changes of soil quality and thus can be used as bio-indicators of soil health.
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Cited: Baidu(63) CSCD(113)
DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of lenok (Brachymystax lenok) populations in China
Yingzhe Xia, Yan Sheng, Yiyu Chen
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (1): 48-54.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050189
Abstract4021)      PDF(pc) (303KB)(3073)       Save
Brachymystax lenok (Salmonidae) is an economically important fish species in China whose population is currently declining due to overexploitation and environmental pollution. Recently it has been listed as a threatened species in the China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals. To study the genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern of its populations is important for addressing the systematics, evolution, and effective conservation of this species. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (835 bp) were obtained by PCR amplification of 71 individuals of Brachymystax lenok from seven populations in China’s eastern river systems. A total of 43 (5.1%) nucleotides were variable, resulting in a total of 15 haplotypes. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a high proportion of the total genetic variance was attri- butable to variations among regions (63.55%), whereas 24.17% and 12.28% occurred among populations within regions and within populations, respectively. A molecular phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggested that the 15 haplotypes were assigned to three clades associated with geographic regions. There were no shared haplotypes found among regions. The pattern of phylogenetic dis-continuity, which is associated with spatial separation, is a result of both historical (long-term, zoogeographic barriers to gene flow) and contemporary (limited dispersal and gene flow capabilities) factors. Based on these results, we propose that each of the three evolutionarily distinct groups of lenok populations should be protected from loss of biodiversity. It is highly recommended that management efforts should be focused on riv-erine conservation, avoiding translocations from the populations of different regions.
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Cited: Baidu(59)
Effects of winter burning and cutting on aboveground growth and re-production of Spartina alterniflora: a field experiment at Chongming Dongtan, Shanghai
Zhichen Wang, Yimo Zhang, Xiaoyun Pan, Zhijun Ma, Jiakuan Chen, Bo Li
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (4): 275-283.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060072
Abstract3462)      PDF(pc) (345KB)(3329)       Save
Winter burning and cutting facilitate growth and reproduction of certain plant species. These two human dis-turbances occurred in winter as a result of economic activities at Chongming Dongtan, where saltmarsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), an American native, has been naturalized. To test the hypothesis that these two disturbances can also facilitate the growth and reproduction of S. alterniflora, a simulated field experiment was carried out at Dongtan. At the same time, the effect of elevation was also considered in the experiment. We found that both winter burning and cutting, to a certain extent, promoted regeneration of S. alterniflora, as they significantly increased ramet density and heading ratio, and reduced culm diameter. This effect was probably caused by the changes of habitat and the improvement of light conditions due to the dis-turbances. The effects of the two disturbances on S. alterniflora were unexpectedly weaker than those of ele-vational variation based on Wilks’ λ from multivariate ANOVA. Little difference occurred in the effects be-tween the two disturbances. We can conclude that disturbances should be managed appropriately because they might facilitate invasion of S. alterniflora.
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Cited: Baidu(56) CSCD(18)
Distribution of an exotic plant Spartina alterniflora in Shanghai
Hepeng Li, Liquan Zhang, Donghui Wang
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (2): 114-120.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050199
Abstract5323)      PDF(pc) (643KB)(4204)       Save
Remote sensing, in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), has been used successfully in many studies on coastal resources, dynamical monitoring of the environment, and quantifying tidal flat vegetation. We investigated the potential of using multispectral satellite remote sensing to map and quantify an exotic plant, Spartina alterniflora, on tidal flats in Shanghai. A Landsat5-Thematic Mapper image, dated 2nd August 2003, was geometrically corrected using ERDAS Imagine 8.6, and a sub-sample of the study area was then extracted. The sub-image was then analyzed using a Tassel Cap transformation (K-T) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to identify different types of salt marsh vegetation. Based on these results, a series of classes were identified and a supervised classification was carried out using the Maximum Likelihood Classifier in ERDAS Imagine. The results of the classification were then checked using an in situ field survey of selected areas. The classification had an overall accuracy of 80%. The classified image was then integrated with other data in a GIS to analyze the spatial distribution of the S. alterniflora communities in Shanghai. The results showed that the total area of the S. alterniflora community in Shanghai was 4,553.37 hm2 in 2003, which accounted for 22.1% of the total vegetation on tidal flats. Excepting Chongming Xitan and Hengsha Island, the S. al-terniflora community was distributed extensively on the tidal flats in the Changjiang Estuary. Nanhui Bian-tan accounted for 2,069.01 hm2; Chongming Dongtan, 910.17 hm2 and Jiuduansha, 769.05 hm2. The distribu-tion pattern of S. alterniflora showed that anthropogenic transplantation and the rapid proliferation of clones could be the main cause for successful expansion of this exotic. The results of this research indicate the po-tential of this approach for providing timely data for quantitative inventory of invasive plants over large ar-eas, and a scientific basis for biodiversity protection and sustainable utilization of tidal flats resources.
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Cited: Baidu(55) CSCD(28)
Functions of earthworm in ecosystem
Weixin Zhang, Dima Chen, Cancan Zhao
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (2): 142-153.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060294
Abstract5728)      PDF(pc) (565KB)(4362)       Save
As one of the key soil invertebrates, earthworms can greatly impact soil processes, and thus was named as “ecosystem engineer”. Earthworm activities such as feeding, digestion, excretion, and burrowing, facilitate the formation of various drilosphere in their guts or soils around, through which they alter the biological, chemical and physical processes of the ecosystem. Earthworms act as consumer, decomposer and modulator in ecosystem. The ecological functions of earthworm include: (1) effects on key soil ecosystem processes such as decomposition of soil organic matters and nutrient cycling; (2) effects on soil chemical and physical properties; and (3) interaction with plants, microorganisms and other animals. Earthworm activities and their functions in ecosystem are determined by various factors such as ecological groups of earthworms, population size, vegetation, parent materials of soil, climate, time scale, and history of soil utilization. The development of earthworm ecology was constrained by the complex feature of soil, the scarce knowledge of natural history and biogeography of earthworms, and the low efficiency of approaches in field manipulation of earthworm community. We suggest that new technologies such as the C and N isotope technique for nu-trient cycling and the image analysis approaches for soil micro-structure should be applied on earthworm ecological research in order to better understand the functions of earthworms.
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Cited: Baidu(55) CSCD(38)
Dynamics of short-term tree mortality in broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains
Liwei Wang, Buhang Li, Ji Ye, Xuejiao Bai, Zuoqiang Yuan, Dingliang Xing, Fei Lin, Shuai Shi, Xugao Wang, Zhanqing Hao
Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (2): 260-270.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.11279
Abstract2791)      PDF(pc) (581KB)(2567)       Save

Tree mortality, usually resulting from interactions among multiple factors, is a crucial process in forest dynamics. Using two census datasets (2004 and 2009) from a 25 ha plot in the Changbai Mountains, we analyzed the composition, size class structure and spatial distribution of individual trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm) that died during the 5-year period. The number of species went from 52 in 2004 to 51 in 2009, with 3 species disappearing and 2 others appearing. The number of individuals changed from 36,908 to 34,926, with 4,030 dying and 2,048 being recruited. The number of dead individuals accounted for 10.9% of total individuals in 2004. Species with high mortality also tended to have high recruitment. Compared with tree species, shrub species had both higher mortality and recruitment rates. In addition, 44 species showed an increased mean DBH in 2009, while the mean DBH of 5 other species decreased. Mortality decreased as DBH increased. Size class distributions of dead dominant species in different vertical layers were similar in the two censuses. Spatial distributions of dead individuals were species-specific. Dead individuals from smaller size classes were spatially clumped at small scales and became randomly spaced at larger scales. However, dead individuals from larger size classes tended to show random distribution at various scales.

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Cited: Baidu(53) CSCD(15)
Methodology of comprehensive biodiversity assessment
Bentai Wan, Haigen Xu, Hui Ding, Zhilei Liu, Jie Wang
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (1): 97-106.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060132
Abstract4371)      PDF(pc) (432KB)(6495)       Save
The six meetings of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity held in 2002 adopted the goal of “significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss worldwide by 2010”, and requested Parties to develop biodiversity assessment indicators and to conduct biodiversity assessment. This paper puts forward five indicators for comprehensive biodiversity assessment, i.e. species richness, diversity of ecosystem types, completeness of vertical stratification of vegetation, endemism, and extent of biological invasions, based on the principles of scientific approach, representativeness, and practicality. Methods for comprehensive biodiversity assessment were established, and a national biodiversity assessment was con-ducted by taking 31 provinces (including municipalities and autonomous regions) as the basic assessment units. Biodiversity of provinces was classified into four grades. Yunnan, Sichuan and Guangxi boast highly rich biodiversity. Guizhou, Hubei, Guangdong, Hunan, Chongqing, Fujian, Tibet, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Hainan, Gansu, Xinjiang, and Shaanxi boast quite high biodiversity. Henan, Anhui, Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, and Beijing have moderate biodiversity. Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Shanghai, Liaoning, Ningxia, Qinghai, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, and Tianjin have poor biodiversity.
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Cited: Baidu(52) CSCD(38)
Species validities of Coilia brachygnathus and C. nasus taihuensis based on sequence variations of complete mtDNA control region
Wenqiao Tang, Xuelian Hu, Jinquan Yang
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (3): 224-231.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060263
Abstract5844)      PDF(pc) (331KB)(3679)       Save
We determined 32 complete mitochondrial control region (D-loop region) sequences of Coilia species, including C. nasus, C. grayii, C. mystus, C. brachygnathus and the so-called C. nasus taihuensis, to investigate the validity of disputed species C. brachygnathus and C. nasus taihuensis, and to discuss the phylogenetic relationships of Coilia in China. Engraulis japonicus and E. ringens were used as outgroups. Sequences length of C. grayii, C. mystus, C. nasus, C. brachygnathus and C. nasus taihuensis were 1,208 bp, 1,279–1,361 bp, 1,252–1,290 bp, 1,214–1,252 bp, and 1,252–1,442 bp, respectively. Except for C. grayii, other Coilia species have length variations among individuals. The average K 2-P distances among C. brachygnathus, C. nasus and C. nasus taihuensis ranged from 0.011 to 0.020, while the average distances between these three species and the species of C. grayii, C. mystus and outgroups ranged from 0.051 to 0.349, thus showing significant difference between the former and latter species. The phylogenetic trees es-timated by maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods indicated that the individuals of C. nasus, C. nasus taihuensis and C. brachygnathus failed to form monophyletic clades. These results revealed that C. nasus taihuensis and C. brachygnathus should be considered the same species and C. nasus is a valid species name. The phylogenetic result also suggests that C. mystus is the most basal among the three valid species of Coilia, while C. grayii and C. mystus are more derived and are sister groups. We presume that C. mystus is the earliest descendant of Coilia ancestor which dispersed from the original center to the northwest Pacific Ocean. C. nasus and C. grayii are the species diverged from C. mystus adapted to cold and warm en-vironment, respectively.
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Cited: Baidu(51) CSCD(51)
Genetic diversity and ecological differentiation of Chinese annual wild soybean (Glycine soja)
Yanlai Ding, Tuanjie Zhao, Junyi Gai
Biodiv Sci    2008, 16 (2): 133-142.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07286
Abstract4498)      PDF(pc) (387KB)(3765)       Save
The annual wild soybean (Glycine soja), known as the ancestor of the cultivated soybean (G. max), is endemic to East Asia with most of its range in China. It is believed that the wild soybean holds a reservoir of genetic variation potentially useful for improvement of cultivated soybeans. Our study combined molecular techniques with evaluation of botanical traits to investigate genetic diversity and genetic specificity caused by geographic differentiation in wild soybean populations in China. A total of 196 wild accessions from three distinct geographic regions (Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and South China, abbreviated as NEC, HHH and SOC, respectively) were genotyped using 52 SSR markers and phenotyped using 10 botanical traits. The average allelic richness (NA) of the entire wild population and Simpson diversity index (H) were 16.1 and 0.852, respectively; higher than those of cultivated populations (NA = 11.4, H = 0.773). Among the three geographic populations, the SOC population had the highest genetic diversity (NA = 12.9, H = 0.842), the NEC population the next highest (NA = 12.4 and H = 0.834), and the HHH population the low-est (NA = 11.4, H = 0.805). Population-specific alleles existed on a number of loci (including AW132402 (Linkage group A2), Satt522 (F), satt150 (M), Sat_332 (D1a), Satt046 (K), sct_190 (K), thus indicating the existence of genetic differentiation among, and ecological specificity of geographic populations. Analysis of botanical traits revealed high variation, diversity (H = 0.710) and geographic differentiation, especially in growth period traits. These differences in botanical traits indicate the significance of natural selection due to geographic variation in day-length and temperature. Analysis of molecular data and botanical traits indicated that the geographic differentiation observed in botanical traits was based on genetic differentiation, and that genetic diversity of the SOC population was higher than the other two populations.
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Cited: Baidu(48) CSCD(22)
Tourism effect on species composition and diversity of understory plants in Abies fargesii var. faxoniana forest in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan
Zhu Zhu, Weikai Bao, Xueyong Pang, Xiaoli Yan, Yuwu Li
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (4): 284-291.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060037
Abstract4585)      PDF(pc) (358KB)(4216)       Save
In recent years, tourism has developed rapidly in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, which has been designated a World Heritage Natural Site. To measure the effect of tourism on vegetation in Jiuzhaigou, we selected two scenic spots, namely the Virgin Forests and the Grass Lake, as study sites and compared the species composition and diversity of understory plants in Abies fargesii var. faxoniana forest. The results showed that (1) the species composition and their frequency were significantly impacted by tourism. Some native shade-tolerant or hygrophilous plants had disappeared, while some xerophilous, disturbance-resistant species, as well as some exotic and synanthropic species, had expanded their populations. (2) In the Virgin Forests, the coverage of understory plants was reduced and the shrubs and bryophytes were markedly depressed (both in height and density). In the Grass Lake, which was only slightly disturbed, there were no obvious effects on herbaceous and shrub communities except for bryophyte. It is concluded that bryophytes are more sensitive to the degree of tourism disturbance, and the species composition can be a better indicator for disturbance degree than other indices such as height, coverage and density. The results indicate that tourism in Jiuzhaigou had an obvious negative effect on the indigenous biodiversity, and conflicted with biodiversity conservation. Therefore, it is necessary to restrict tourism activities to an appropriate extent.
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Cited: Baidu(47) CSCD(40)
Seed dormancy and germination characteristics of Manglietia patungen-sis, an endangered plant endemic to China
Faju Chen, Hongwei Liang, Xu Wang, Zhengquan He, Fenglan Li
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (5): 492-499.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060238
Abstract3320)      PDF(pc) (627KB)(3186)       Save
Manglietia patungensis, an endangered tree species endemic to China, is listed in National Key Protected Species. To explore the underlying mechanisms relevant to the impediment in its sexual reproduction, we studied the morphological and physiological characteristics of seeds during its dormancy and after-ripening process. The results showed that the incomplete development of embryos was the main reason for seed dormancy. The immature embryos continued differentiating and developing during the after-ripening process. As the seed coat was permeable, it would not induce seed dormancy. Germination inhibitors existed in different parts of seeds, especially in the endosperm, which was believed to be a major factor for the ger-mination delay. Endogenous hormone ABA and IAA played an important role in the dormancy and germina-tion of seeds. ABA was the key factor for seeds dormancy while IAA benefited germination. Therefore, the change of IAA/ABA ratio was crucial to seed dormancy and germination. Only at a temperature as low as 4°C and in a humid environment, could M. patungensis seeds complete the morphological and physiological after-ripening process. In fact, it was observed that the after-ripening process of M. patungensis seeds oc-curred in autumn, a season characterized by low rainfall and drought in this area. Evidently, viability loss of seeds caused by water deficit during the after-ripening period may explain the poor regeneration of this spe-cies.
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Cited: Baidu(47) CSCD(30)
Access and benefit sharing of genetic resources: background, progress and challenges
Dayuan Xue
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (5): 563-568.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070167
Abstract3523)      PDF(pc) (365KB)(3930)       Save
In this paper, the background for access and benefit sharing (ABS) of genetic resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is reviewed, and the work of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Access and Benefit Sharing for Genetic Resources is introduced. Then the negotiation progresses since the Eighth Conference of Parties (COP-8) of CBDare analyzed in details, especially the discussion and outcomes in an internationally recognized certificate of origin/source/legal provenance for genetic resources. Furthermore, the current challenges in ABS issue are also described and analyzed. The main challenges in-clude: (1) at international level, conflicts between CBD and WTO/TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intel-lectual Property Rights) system as well as WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) system on intel-lectual property right of genetic resources and related traditional knowledge; (2) at national level, ABS legis-lation requirement and related key problems; and (3) technical limitations in identifications of genetic re-sources’ origins and enforcement of benefit sharing system.
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Cited: Baidu(47) CSCD(21)
Studies on plant–pollinator interaction and its significances
Shuangquan Huang
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (6): 569-575.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070294
Abstract3680)      PDF(pc) (215KB)(5098)       Save
The majority of flowering plants and crops rely in whole or part on animals for pollination. The mutualism between plants and pollinators has attracted ecologists and evolutionists to use this type of interspecific interaction as a model system to study species adaptation and diversification since Charles Darwin. Recent debate on the nature of pollination systems call for studies of this interaction at different levels, ranging from single species to entire communities in a given area. At the species level, detailed studies suggest that floral traits are under selection from mutualists and antagonists as well as the physical environment. In contrast, studies at community-level are rare, but recent analyses indicate considerable spatial and temporal variation in both generalized and specialized pollination systems. This special issue of Biodiversity Science focuses on plant-pollinator interaction, presenting current research status in this area from China. Papers include floral traits and pollinator behaviors addressed by phenotypic manipulation, estimates of pollen removal and receipt, anatomy of flowers, histochemistry analysis and spatial and temporal comparison. The taxa being investigated include wild orchid and cultivated legume, endemic, endangered and invasive species with diverse sexual systems. These thirteen experimental studies and three reviews show the development of pollination biology in China and expose how to facilitate our understanding of the critical ecological proc-esses underlying interspecific interaction in both natural and agricultural ecosystems.
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Cited: Baidu(47) CSCD(22)
Community structure and species composition of an evergreen broadleaved forest in Tiantong’s 20 ha dynamic plot, Zhejiang Province, eastern China
Qingsong Yang, Zunping Ma, Yubin Xie, Zhiguo Zhang, Zhanghua Wang, Heming Liu, Ping Li, Na Zhang, Dali Wang, Haibo Yang, Xiaofeng Fang, Enrong Yan, Xihua Wang
Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (2): 215-223.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.09013
Abstract3444)      PDF(pc) (417KB)(3538)       Save

Evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) is a typical vegetation type in low elevation regions in eastern China. The permanent plot-based approach to community analysis is fundamentally important for revealing mechanisms of biodiversity maintenance. In this study, community structure and species composition were investigated and analyzed using a 20-ha permanent plot in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province. Our results were as follows: (1) we counted a total of 94,603 individuals, belonging to 152 species, 94 genera and 51 families. The three most dominant families were Theaceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae. The genera present were dominated by tropical (52.1% in total) and temperate (42.6% in total) floras; (2) species in the evergreen life form were dominant with a community importance value of 80.3%. The three most dominant species were Eurya loquaiana, Litsea elongata and Choerospondias axiliaris. Fifty five species were considered rare; (3) the size distribution of all trees followed a reverse “J” shape; and (4) evergreen species showed a greater resprouting ability than deciduous species. In conclusion, with rich species composition and a mature community structure, the EBLF in Tiantong region is typical of this vegetation type.

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Cited: Baidu(44)
The effects of differences in functional group diversity and composition on plant community productivity in four types of alpine meadow communities
WANG Chang-Ting, LONG Rui-Jun, DING Lu-Ming
Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (4): 403-409.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004049
Abstract3000)      PDF(pc) (264KB)(2650)       Save
The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function is one of the core problem of biodiversity research, and productivity is an important modality of ecosystem function. The species diversity of natural communities is often strongly related to their productivity. The grassland is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and plays a significant role in the biodiversity and ecosystem function. Understanding of how to use natural vegetation to restore deteriorated grasslands is critical for protection of grassland ecosystems. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and productivity relies on scales. At some scales, productivity affects diversity, and at other scales, species diversity also affects productivity. Thus, it is necessary to know the relationship between plant functional diversity and productivity in different grassland types. In 2003 the differences in plant functional diversity, functional composition and productivity in different grassland types of alpine meadow were analyzed. Humans are modifying both the identities and the numbers of species in ecosystems. However, the impacts of such changes on ecosystem processes are still controversial. The effects of functional diversity and composition on plant community productivity were analyzed in four types of alpine meadows. The research results show:(1) the effects of the legume functional group on productivity was greater than other functional groups in Kobresia humlis meadow and Potentilla froticosa shrub. (2) Although the biomass of forbs, C3 plants and sedge functional groups account for higher proportion of community productivity in Kobresia pygmaca meadow and K. tibetica swamp meadow, differences were not significantly different, indicating that the factors influencing community productivity were not only species diversity, but also the identity of species present and environmental resources. These factors were in turn mainly affected by species diversity and evenness among functional groups. That is, differences in functional group composition have a larger effect on ecosystem processes than functional group richness alone. (3) A significant correlation was found between the coverage per functional group and the primary productivity of communities in the four types of alpine meadows. (4) Changes in productivity with number of species per functional group showed a unimodal pattern, such that the maximum community productivity occured at an intermediate level of number of species per functional group.
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Cited: Baidu(43) CSCD(46)
A review and perspective on soil biodiversity research
Shenglei Fu
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (2): 109-115.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060293
Abstract3438)      PDF(pc) (197KB)(6231)       Save
In this paper, the soil biodiversity and its functioning in ecosystem were briefly summarized, and the history and development of the discipline of soil biology were also reviewed. Meanwhile, I pointed out some issues on soil biology to be addressed for a few years to come. Due to the importance of soil biodiversity to the maintenance of ecosystem functions but inadequate study on soil biota in China, a series of articles on soil biota were collectively published in this issue of Biodiversity Science. The objectives of this issue were to enable the Chinese scientists to better understand the functions of soil biodiversity and to stimulate the interest of young scholars in the discipline of soil biology. The ultimate goal was to push forward the research and development of soil biology in China and to apply the knowledge and techniques of soil biology in the development of national economy.
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Cited: Baidu(42) CSCD(54)
Community structure and diversity of macrozoobenthos in Lake Taihu, a large shallow eutrophic lake in China
Yongjiu Cai, Zhijun Gong, Boqiang Qin
Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (1): 50-59.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.050
Abstract4470)      PDF(pc) (630KB)(4884)       Save

To explore the status of macrozoobenthic communities and their response to ecological changes in Lake Taihu, we carried out a quarterly investigation on macrozoobenthos between February 2007 and November 2008. We recorded 40 species from 19 families, 7 classes and 3 phyla. Mean density and biomass varied largely among the 30 sampling sites. The highest mean density of macrozoobenthos occurred in Meiliang Bay, Zhushan Bay and river mouth, and communities were dominated by Tubificidae. Mean biomass was highest in Gonghu Bay, Western region, East Taihu and East Bays, these sites were dominated by Mollusca. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Rhyacodrilus sinicus, Corbicula fluminea, Bellamya aeruginosa, Tanypus chinensis and Gammarus sp. were the dominant species in Lake Taihu. Cluster analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) classified the 30 sites into three groups with different macrozoobenthic communities (P < 0.05). K-dominance curves, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices indicated that species richness and evenness were highest in East Taihu and East Bays, dominated by Gastropods. Communities in Meiliang Bay, Zhushan Bay and river mouth had low species diversity and were dominated by L. hoffmeisteri and R. sinicus. Gonghu Bay, Central region and Western region contained intermediately diverse communities dominated by C. fluminea. Our results suggest that trophic status, habitat types and macrophytes are impor-tant factors regulating macrozoobenthic communities in Lake Taihu.

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Cited: Baidu(41) CSCD(52)
Assessment of giant panda habitat in the Daxiangling Mountain Range, Sichuan, China
Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang, Zeyin Jiang, Hua Zheng, Jianguo Liu
Biodiv Sci    DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050191
Elevational diversity patterns of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, northern Guangdong Province
Huaizhen Tian, Fuwu Xing
Biodiv Sci    2008, 16 (1): 75-82.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07081
Abstract3647)      PDF(pc) (627KB)(6007)       Save
To determine orchid diversity along an elevation gradient, we conducted a four-year investigation at five management districts (Ruyang, Dadongshan, Chengjia, Longtanjiao and Tianjingshan) in Nanling National Nature Reserve, northern Guangdong Province. The orchid species and individual number, their life forms and habitat conditions were surveyed. Then we analyzed their floristic components and evaluated their endangerment degree according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2001). To study the al-titudinal distribution of orchids, we divided the study area from 230 m to 1,902 m into nine equal belts at 200-m intervals. We recorded 70 orchid species of 38 genera in total, of which 63 species were recorded in Ruyang. Most of these species had small populations. The orchid diversity presented a hump-shaped pattern along the elevational gradient with a peak at mid-elevations (600–800 m), of which terrestrial, epiphytic, and saprophytic orchids showed the same trend. The endangered species were mainly distributed at 600–1,000 m, where there were better habitats and less human disturbance. The most abundant floristic components were found at 800–1,000 m. The tropical orchids mainly distributed below 1,600 m. There was a higher similarity index between the neighbouring elevational belts. It was concluded that the abundant orchid species at mid-elevation resulted from better thermal and humidity condition, while the conspicuous decline of species richness at low elevation is a result of human disturbance.
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Cited: Baidu(39) CSCD(21)
Spatial and temporal pattern of seed rain of Abies fargesii in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei
Li Zou, Zongqiang Xie, Qingmei Li, Changming Zhao, Chuanlong Li
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (5): 500-509.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060234
Abstract4116)      PDF(pc) (345KB)(3503)       Save
Abies fargesii is endemic to China and its distribution center is located in Qinling-Bashan Mountains. To study the spatial and temporal pattern of seed rain of Abies fargesii, we conducted experiments from 9 October to 24 November in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei in 2005. The results showed that patterns of Abies fargesii seed rain were different in three communities. In Abies fargesii–Fargesia nitida community, the average seed rain intensity was 167.93±111.14 seeds per m2, in which the proportion of viable seed was 22.31%; and the seed rain pattern mainly showed clump distribution which peaked in 27 October to 2 No-vember. In Abies fargesii–Skimmia reevesiana community the seed rain intensity was just 16.41±14.41 seeds per m2 in which viable seed only accounted for 3.05%. In Abies fargesii–Sorbus koehneana community, seed traps were set up in four lines at 90°intervals, of which two lines run directly up and down the hill slope. In this community, the seed rain intensity peaked from 15 October to 21 October. And the most quantity of seed rain was concentrated under the crown, which accounted for 87.95% of the total amount. One-Way ANOVA analysis showed that no significant differences existed among four directions but significant difference existed between 0–6 m and other distance from the center mother tree in terms of seed rain quantity. The distri-bution pattern of seed rain in Abies fargesii–Sorbus koehneana community fitted the equation y=ae–bx2. The result showed although Abies fargesii had high seed rain intensity, but inviable seeds accounted for a large proportion, and the dispersal distance of seed rain was limited. These characteristics would influence the pat-tern and regeneration of Abies fargesii population.
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Cited: Baidu(35) CSCD(19)
Effect of microbivorous nematodes on plant growth and soil nutrient cy-cling: a review
Jihua Wu, Ciyu Song, Jiakuan Chen
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (2): 124-133.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050291
Abstract3965)      PDF(pc) (218KB)(3981)       Save
The ecological functions of soil fauna have attracted widespread interest from ecologists during the past two decades. A growing number of evidences show that the soil fauna interact with microorganisms and play important roles in regulating soil ecosystem processes and plant growth. This review addresses the issue of how bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes influence soil microorganisms, nitrogen mineralization and plant growth. Most studies suggest that bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes stimulated soil nitrogen mineralization and promoted plant growth. The mechanisms underlying these effects are the impact of nematode grazing on microorganisms and the release of nutrients from consumed microbial biomass. How-ever, these effects vary with different nematode species, microorganism species, plant species and C/N ratios of substrates, and are influenced by complex interactions between different trophic groups of nematodes as well as other soil fauna. Future studies should (1) enhance our understanding about the mechanistic basis of the interaction of nematodes, microorganisms and plants; (2) address more complex interactions between different trophic groups of nematodes and other soil fauna; (3) examine the ecological roles of soil nematodes at a longer temporal scale; (4) compare different ecosystems to understand the ecological roles of soil nematodes at a broader spatial scale; and (5) predict the responses and feedbacks of soil nematodes to atmospheric drivers of global changes.
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Cited: Baidu(34) CSCD(31)
Species diversity of fishes in the coral reefs of South China Sea
Guobao Chen, Yongzhen Li, Xinjun Chen
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (4): 373-381.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060268
Abstract3807)      PDF(pc) (212KB)(3967)       Save
During May to July 2004 and March to April 2005, we carried out two cruise surveys on fish resources using trammel net in the adjacent waters of 23 coral reefs of the South China Sea. We analyzed fish species composition and community characteristics. The results showed that Carcharhiniformes and Myliobatiformes were dominant families of the cartilaginous fishes, while Perciformes and Teraodontiformes were dominant families in the bony fishes. We defined the species with an Index of Relative Importance (IRI) >500 as dominant species. Accordingly, five dominant species were found in Xisha Archipelago waters, namely Taeniura meyeni, Lethrinus miniatus, Plectorhinchus pictus, P. flavomaculatus, and Hexanchus griseus. Six dominant species were found in the Zhongsha Archipelago water, namely Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus, Taeniura meyeni, Platax orbicularis, Dioson hystrix, Lethrinus rubrioperculatus, and Plectorhinchus pictus, and the three dominant species were in the Nansha Archipelago water, Carcharhinus limbatus, Triaenodon obesus, and Caranx stellatus. Since the fish body sizes varied remarkably, we calculated Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and Pielou evenness index based on both individual number and biomass. The results indicated that fish species diversity in coral reefs water were significantly different compared with those either in the northern or southwestern continental shelf waters of South China Sea. Fish species in similar habitats had higher similarity.
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Cited: Baidu(34) CSCD(40)
PCR-RFLP analysis of bacterial 16S rDNA from a typical garden soil in Taihu region
Qihui Teng, Hui Cao, Zhongli Cui, Ying Wang, Bo Sun, Hongtao Hao, Shunpeng Li
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (4): 345-351.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060003
Abstract4455)      PDF(pc) (636KB)(5188)       Save
Soil microbial diversity provides basic function of a soil ecosystem. In this study, the total DNA of microorganisms was extracted by an indirect method from a typical garden soil of Taihu region, Jiangsu Province. The 16S rDNAs of the extracted DNA were amplified using bacterial universal primers 27F and 1492R. PCR products were ligated into the pMD 18-T Vector and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α to construct a 16S rDNA clone library of the soil microbes. A total of 173 clones from the library were screened and their 16S rDNA fragments were reamplified. The PCR products were digested by Rsa I and Hha I, re-spectively, and their fingerprints were analyzed. The results indicated that the library includes 63 Hha I and Rsa I restriction endonuclease types and the coverage (C value) of the clone library is 76.30%. The number of genotypes digested either by Hha I or Rsa I is only 40 and 27 although it has a high coverage. There were two main restriction types accounting for 16% and 12% of the total 16S rDNA clones, respectively. Phy-logenetic analysis suggests that the dominant bacteria in this garden soil belong to α-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria.
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Cited: Baidu(32) CSCD(41)
Biodiversity and ecosystem stability
Biodiv Sci    1995, 03 (1): 31-37.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1995006
Abstract3066)      PDF(pc) (640KB)(3826)       Save
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Cited: Baidu(32)
Distribution and diversity of endophytic bacteria in tomato plants from Guangxi
Qiqin Li, Yiling Xie, Wei Lin, Jiguang Wei, Kuan Luo
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (6): 534-540.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060139
Abstract3391)      PDF(pc) (381KB)(3195)       Save
Study of the distribution and fluctuation of endophytic bacteria in tomato plants is important for screening of specific endophytic bacteria strains to control bacterial wilt of tomato. We isolated 624 endophytic bacteria strains from the roots, stems and leaf tissues of 303 symptomless tomato plants collected from Guangxi. By conventional methods, these strains were identified as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Microbacterium, Corynebacterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter, and Agrobacterium. Among them, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Agrobacterium were main genera and Bacillus was the dominant genus. The endophytic bacteria were the most common in the roots of tomato plants, followed by those in stems and leaves. The to-tal amount of endophytic bacteria increased gradually from the seedling stage to flowering stage, and then decreased gradually from fruit setting stage to ripening stage. The amount of most endophytic bacteria genera fluctuated in correspondence with the total amount of endophytic bacteria with the exception of Microbacte-rium, whose number kept decreasing from seedling to ripening stages. More endophytic bacteria were found in tomato plants cultivated in the spring than those cultivated in the autumn.
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Cited: Baidu(31) CSCD(14)
Roles of springtails in soil ecosystem
Jianxiu Chen, Zhichun Ma, Haijuan Yan, Feng Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (2): 154-161.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060288
Abstract5057)      PDF(pc) (370KB)(4434)       Save
The springtails are widespread small to tiny arthropods in soil ecosystem. They play important roles in the circulation of soil materials, development of soil, formation of soil micro-structure, improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and the maintenance of soil living community. The diversity, community structure, and species composition of springtails in the soil reflect the status of soil quality and con-tamination. The important roles of springtails in the soil ecosystem, their potential values in the ecological practices and the recent advances and prospects are introduced in the present paper.
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Cited: Baidu(31) CSCD(48)
Temporal and spatial changes of plant community diversity on the Ordos Plateau
Yongmei Huang, Mingli Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (1): 13-20.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050091
Abstract4157)      PDF(pc) (436KB)(3421)       Save
In order to provide a scientific basis for biodiversity protection on the Ordos Plateau, we compared plant community diversity in 1999 and 2000 with that in 1986 (Li, 1990). The results indicated that the 23 major types of plant communities showed significant differences in Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, and coverage, but similar richness. Higher diversity and higher coverage occurred in the typical steppe in the middle-eastern sector of the plateau, while higher diversity but lower coverage was found in the desert-steppe and steppe-desert in the west, and lower diversity but higher coverage was found in the communities of the Maowusu sandland. From 1986 to 2000, the biodiversity and coverage of the communities had changed ob-viously. The biodiversity of typical steppe, desert-steppe and sandland vegetation showed a decreasing trend, whereas coverage of typical steppe and steppe-desert increased, and the coverage of the desert-steppe de-creased. We recommend that great attention should be paid to the ecological conservation of the desert-steppe as well as to species diversity of sandland vegetation and steppe desert.
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Cited: Baidu(30) CSCD(13)
Community assembly: the relative importance of neutral theory and niche theory
Kechang Niu, Yining Liu, Zehao Shen, Fangliang He, Jingyun Fang
Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (6): 579-593.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09142
Abstract7052)      PDF(pc) (439KB)(9816)       Save
Understanding species coexistence and the maintenance of biodiversity has long been the central interest of ecologists. The niche-based theory of community assembly has dominated community ecology for nearly a century, yet understanding of the mechanisms of species coexistence has remained elusive. The newly developed neutral theory of biodiversity has offered a promising alternative to the niche paradigm. The analytical elegance and simplicity of the neutral theory and its predictive power have made the theory widely popular. However, it is the very same simplicity of the theory (e.g. the symmetric assumption) that makes the theory vulnerable to stark criticisms. Widespread empirical evidence has shown that species in communities are not functionally symmetric; ecological equivalence is more a conceptual simplicity than a biological real-ism. Recognizing that niche and neutral processes do not have to diametrically oppose each other and a community is likely determined by the interplay of the two processes, ecologists currently are searching to reconcile the two theories by either incorporating drift into niche theory or niche into the neutral framework. However, this reconciliation process is still at its very early stage, we expect this direction will lead to a more complete understanding of community assembly mechanisms. In this paper, we provide a review on the brief histories of the niche and neutral theories, with the focus on comparing the distinct importance of the two theories in explaining community assembly. We discuss in details several integrated models that attempt to unify the niche and neutral theories. We argue that it is an essential step for any successful theory to with-stand substantial experimental and field tests. The experimental tests of neutral theories are an important di-rection that has currently not received due attention.
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Cited: Baidu(30) CSCD(73)
Genetic differentiation among natural populations of Gastrodia elata (Orchidaceae) in Hubei and germplasm assessment of the cultivated populations
Huifang Wu, Zuozhou Li, Hongwen Huang
Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (4): 315-326.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060053
Abstract3465)      PDF(pc) (318KB)(3690)       Save
Gastrodia elata (Orchidaceae) is a rare and endangered medicinal plant. Seven ISSR primers were used to examine population genetic parameters of 483 samples across eight natural populations and six cultivated populations of G. elata. The seven primers amplified a total of 77 unambiguous and reproducible bands, among which 64 bands were polymorphic and the percentage of polymorphic loci was PPB=83.12%. The results showed that genetic variation in the natural populations was significantly higher than that in the cultivated populations (PPB=59.09% vs. PPB=35.71%, Ae=1.29 vs. Ae=1.16, H=0.176 vs. H=0.100 and Shannon’s I=0.270 vs. I=0.155), suggesting that the cultivated populations are narrowly genetic-based and genetically uniform. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that natural populations and cultivated populations were distinctly separated into two groups. Coefficient of genetic differentiation among eight natural popula-tions was 0.2558 (GST) which was well in accordance with the result by AMOVA analysis (27.25% of the to-tal genetic variation resided among populations), indicating that natural populations were genetically differ-entiated to a certain extent. Gene flow among natural populations was relatively weak (Nm=1.4547), which might have caused the genetic differentiation among the populations. It is interesting to note that natural populations tended to cluster by geographical locations as revealed in UPGMA dendrogram, while the Mantel test showed no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among natural popula-tions(r=0.1669, P=0.2110). This incongruence suggested that the current genetic differentiation among natu-ral populations might have resulted from combined effects, including those of life history traits, geographical isolation and human disruption. The genetic uniformity found in cultivated populations might reflect the loss of genetic diversity caused by a genetic bottleneck during human domestication and clonal reproduction over generations. The narrow genetic base as revealed in cultivated G. elata and the genetic differentiation be-tween cultivated and natural populations might have resulted from a cutoff of gene exchange when domesti-cation began.
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Cited: Baidu(29) CSCD(12)

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