Biodiversity Science ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 144-154.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019253

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Species composition of dinoflagellates cysts in ballast tank sediments of foreign ships berthed in Jiangyin Port

Jiazhen Zhang1, Chunlei Gao1, 2, 3, *(), Yan Li1, 2, 3, Ping Sun1, 2, 3, Zongling Wang1, 2, 3   

  1. 1 First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao, Shandong 266061
    2 Laboratory of Science and Engineering for Marine Ecological Environment, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao, Shandong 266061
    3 Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
  • Received:2019-08-14 Accepted:2019-12-17 Online:2019-12-24
  • Chunlei Gao

In order to explore the species composition and invasion risk of dinoflagellate resting cysts in the sediments of ballast tanks of foreign ships, we identified and analyzed the species of living dinoflagellate cysts in the sediments of five foreign ships ballast tanks in Jiangyin Port based on the morphological characteristics and molecular biology information of dormant cysts and germinating cells. A total of 29 species of dinoflagellate cysts (excluding three unkonwn species), belonging to Gonyaulacoid group, Calcoidinellid group, Gymnodinioid group, Diplopsalid group and Protoperidinioid group, were recorded in ballast sediments. The density of living cysts ranged from 0.73 to 44.3 cysts/g DW. Cysts of toxic and harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense species complex, Protoceratium reticulatum, and Gonyaulax spinifera were found in five ships. In addition, a variety of unrecorded dinoflagellate cyst types in Chinese coasts have been found, one of which was identified as Alexandrium insuetum. Germination and incubation experiments showed that it can proliferate in coastal waters of China. Therefore, Alexandrium insuetum has potential invasion risk and possibility of bloom in coastal China.

Key words: cyst germination, dinoflagellate cysts, biological invasion, ballast tank sediments, species composition

Table 1

Location of ballast water exchange sites of foreign ships berthed in Jiangyin Port"

船号 Ship number 压载水替换港口(按时间顺序排列) Port for replace of ballast water (in order of time)
1号 Number 1 巴尔的摩港→伊塔瓜伊港→乍浦港→吉朗港→波特兰港→阿德莱德港→昂山港
2号 Number 2 美国→巴拿马→蔚山港 USA→Panama→Ulsan
3号 Number 3 富查伊拉港→吉赞港→拉文纳港→瑞山港→新加坡→台中港→太仓港→蔚山港
4号 Number 4 圣洛伦索港→格拉德斯通港 Arslo→Auglt
5号 Number 5 大阪港→宁波港 Osaka→Ningbo

Table 2

Primers used for amplification and sequencing"

引物 Primer 序列 Sequence (5′-3′) 参考文献 Reference

Fig. 1

Dinoflagellate cysts and germinated cells in sediments of ballast tanks in Jiangyin Port. (1) Alexandrium tamarense species complex cyst; (2a-b) Alexandrium affine cyst; (3a) Alexandrium andersonii cyst, (3b) A. andersonii motile cell; (4a-b) Alexandrium insuetum cyst, (4c-d) A. insuetum motile cell; (5a-b) Lingulodinium polyedrum cyst; (6a) Protoceratium reticulatum cyst, (6b) P. reticulatum motile cell; (7a-c) Gonyaulax spinifera cyst; (8) Gonyaulax sp. 1 cyst; (9a-b) Gonyaulax sp. 2 cyst; (10a-c) Scrippsiella acuminata cyst, (10d) S. acuminata motile cell; (11a) Scrippsiella enormis cyst, (11b) S. enormis motile cell; (12a) Scrippsiella donghaiensis cyst, (12b) S. donghaiensis motile cell; (13a) Gyrodinium instriatum cyst, (13b) G. instriatum motile cell; (14a-b) Diplopsalid group type 1 cyst; (15a-b) Diplopsalid group type 2 cyst; (16a-b) Fragilidium mexicanum cyst; (17) Protoperidinium avellana cyst; (18a-b) Protoperidinium abei cyst; (19) Protoperidinium americanum cyst; (20) Protoperidinium rhombiforme cyst; (21a-b) Protoperidinium punctulatum cyst, (21c-d) P. punctulatum motile cell; (22a-b) Protoperidinium biconicum cyst; (23a-b) Protoperidinium latissinum cyst, (23c) P. latissinum motile cell; (24a-b) Protoperidinium conicum cyst; (25) Protoperidinium oblongum cyst; (26) Protoperidinium claudicans cyst; (27a) Protoperidinium marielebourae cyst, (27b) P. marielebourae motile cell; (28a-b) Protoperidinium sp. 1 cyst, (28c) Protoperidinium sp. 1 motile cell; (29a-b) Protoperidinium sp. 2 cyst; (30) Unknown species 1; (31) Unknown species 2; (32) Unknown species 3. Scale bars: 10 μm."

Table 3

Related information of molecular sequence and alignment sequence"

Accession number
Alignment sequence
Similarity (%)
异常亚历山大藻 Alexandrium insuetum ITS MN197893 JF521630 99.81 Orr et al, 2011
锥状斯氏藻 Scrippsiella acuminata ITS MN197899 HQ729493 99.54 Zinssmeister et al, 2011
锥状斯氏藻 S. acuminata ITS MN197902 HM483396 90.36 Coats et al, 2010
锥状斯氏藻 S. acuminata ITS MN200945 HM483396 99.15 Coats et al, 2010
无纹环沟藻 Gymrdinium instriatum ITS MN209264 GU477607 99.68 Wang et al, 未发表
网状原角藻 Protoceratium reticulatum ITS MN203677 JQ638939 98.60 Herrera et al, 2012
安德森亚历山大藻 A. andersonii LSU MN197869 KF034855 100 Gu et al, 2013b
异常斯氏藻 S. enormis LSU MN197911 KT804917 100 Gu et al, 2013a
东海斯氏藻 S. donghaiensis LSU MN197912 JN982374 100 Zinssmeister et al, 2012
墨西哥易碎藻 Fragilidium mexicanum LSU MN203623 KY624505 99.52 Kim & Park, 2017
宽刺原多甲藻 Protoperidinium latissinum LSU MN209392 KM591209 91.40 Gu et al, 2015

Table 4

Composition and density of dinoflagellate cysts in the sediments from ballast tanks of different ship"

Ship number 1
Ship number 2
Ship number 3
Ship number 4
Ship number 5
膝沟藻类 Gonyaulacoid group
Alexandrium tamarense species complex
++ + + + ++
相关亚历山大藻 Alexandrium affine ++ ++ +++ ++ ++
安德森亚历山大藻 Alexandrium andersonii ++ + +
异常亚历山大藻 Alexandrium insuetum +
多边舌甲藻 Lingulodinium polyedrum + + +
网状原角藻 Protoceratium reticulatum + + + ++ +
具刺膝沟藻 Gonyaulax spinifera + + + ++ +
膝沟藻未定种1 Gonyaulax sp. 1 ++ +
膝沟藻未定种2 Gonyaulax sp. 2 + + +
钙甲藻类 Calcoidinellid group
锥状斯氏藻 Scrippsiella acuminata ++ + ++ + +++
异常斯氏藻 Scrippsiella enormis +
东海斯氏藻 Scrippsiella donghaiensis ++ + +
裸甲藻类 Gymnodinioid group
无纹环沟藻 Gyrodinium instriatum ++ +
翼甲藻类 Diplopsalid group
翼藻类未定种1 Diplopsalid group type 1 + + +
翼藻类未定种2 Diplopsalid group type 2 ++ + + +
墨西哥易碎藻 Fragilidium mexicanum + + +
原多甲藻类 Protoperidinioid group
褐色原多甲藻 Protoperidinium avellana + + + + +
安倍原多甲藻 Protoperidinium abei + +
美国原多甲藻 Protoperidinium americanum + +
菱形原多甲藻 Protoperidinium rhombiforme +
穿刺原多甲藻 Protoperidinium punctulatum + + +
双尖原多甲藻 Protoperidinium biconicum +
宽刺原多甲藻 Protoperidinium latissinum + +
锥形原多甲藻 Protoperidinium conicum +
长形原多甲藻 Protoperidinium oblongum + + ++ +
窄角原多甲藻 Protoperidinium claudicans + +
玛丽雷伯原多甲藻 Protoperidinium marielebourae +
原多甲藻未定种1 Protoperidinium sp. 1 + +
原多甲藻未定种2 Protoperidinium sp. 2 + +
未定种 Unidentified
未定种1 Unknown species 1 + +
未定种2 Unknown species 2 +++
未定种3 Unknown species 3 +
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