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Table of Content
    Volume 28 Issue 2
    20 February 2020
    Wang et al (see pages 189–218 of this issue) updated the checklists of native, extent amphibians and reptiles of China until the end of 2019, based on the past reptile checklist in 2015, the online database AmphibiaChina, and newly published and previously uncollected literature. The cover image presents some representative species of the major taxonomic groups of amphibians and reptiles from China, which are (starting at the upper left corner, moving horizontally and downward) Mauremys reevesii (photo by Shuo Qi), Takydromus septentrionalis (by Kai Wang), Hynobius amjiensis (by Kai Wang), Amolops chayuensis (by Kai Wang), Trimerodytes balteatus (by Jinlong Ren), Feihyla palpebralis (by Jinlong Ren), Popeia yingjiangensis (by Jinlong Ren), Pelodiscus axenaria (by Shuo Qi), Tylototriton shanjing (by Kai Wang), and Goniurosaurus araneus (by Jinlong Ren).
    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Contribution of rare species to species diversity and species abundance distribution pattern in the Gannan subalpine meadow
    Liu Minxia, Li Quandi, Jiang Xiaoxuan, Xia Sujuan, Nan Xiaoning, Zhang Yaya, Li Bowen
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  107-116.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019297
    Abstract ( 1433 )   HTML ( 66 )   PDF (1211KB) ( 1310 )   Save
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    Rare species not only contribute to a community’s species abundance distribution pattern, but are also important contributors to alpha diversity. In this study, we studied the changes of species diversity and species abundance distribution pattern in the subalpine meadow of Gannan at different slope directions. To do this, we used means of additive allocation and RAD package of Fortran software fitting to analyze species abundance distribution pattern and α diversity to determine the contribution of rare species in species abundance distribution pattern. The results show that: (1) From southern to northern slopes, environmental factors changed greatly as the total soil phosphorus, soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, carbon-nitrogen ratio and water content increased. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus and soil pH showed decreasing trends. Soil total nitrogen was significantly lower in the west slope than in other slope directions, while available nitrogen has no significant difference in all aspects. (2) The influence of rare species on the community’s species diversity increased from south to north. However, compared with the scenarios of removing rare species and the condition of removing non-rare species, the effect of removing rare species in all aspects was higher than that of removing non-rare species. Therefore, the relative contribution of rare species to species diversity was higher than that of non-rare species. (3) The resource acquisition strategy of rare species was found to be random (the random fraction). However, the niche preemption model (the geometric series) is the main model for non-rare species. Due to the large dispersal capacity of rare species, the niche overlap among species will be more obvious in the communities with high species diversity. In this way, the increase of species diversity is inhibited, thus maintaining the biodiversity.

    Influence of habitat on the distribution pattern and diversity of plant community in dry and warm valleys of the middle reaches of the Dadu River, China
    Li Xia, Zhu Wanze, Sun Shouqin, Shu Shumiao, Sheng Zheliang, Zhang Jun, Liu Ting, Zhang Zhicai
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  117-127.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019202
    Abstract ( 1576 )   HTML ( 50 )   PDF (2207KB) ( 864 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    In the dry and warm valleys of the middle reaches of the Dadu River, landslides and debris flows occur frequently. Studying vegetation on these slopes is valuable in understanding vegetation succession in regards to ecological restoration of highly disturbed landscapes. In this study, plots were selected along the Dadu River every 5 km to investigate species composition, distribution, topography, soil characteristics, and vegetation change in the middle reaches of the Dadu River valley. Plant communities were classified, compared and sorted using multiple regression tree (MRT), alpha diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results showed that the landscape were divided into four communities based on three factors: soil carbon, pH and C : N, i.e. Lespedeza floribunda-Arthraxon hispidus-Elsholtzia ciliate, Ficus tikoua-Dodonaea viscosa-Carex schneideri, Pinus yunnanensis-Quercus variabilis and Arthraxon hispidus-Heteropogon contortus. Shrub and grass dominate this area, with occasional areas of bare ground which is liable to debris flow disasters. The species richness, dominance and diversity of shrub-grass (Lespedeza floribunda) community are consistently higher than arbor and grass communities, although species diversity values are not significant. The shrub and grass community is widely distributed, although fragile and unstable as alien species reached 8.33% within these communities. MRT and CCA analysis showed that pH, C : N, slope direction and soil bulk density are the main factors influencing vegetation distribution pattern as soil influences are more important than topography.

    Population spatial pattern of Stipa grandis and its response to long-term overgrazing
    Wang Xinting, Chai Jing, Jiang Chao, Tai Yang, Chi Yanyan, Zhang Weihua, Liu Fang, Li Suying
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  128-134.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019276
    Abstract ( 1262 )   HTML ( 50 )   PDF (831KB) ( 877 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Spatial distribution patterns of plant populations is fundamental to ecology. Primary communities have become rare in the steppe because long-term overgrazing has led to serious degradation of the steppe ecosystems and requires further investigation. The most widely distributed grassland across the Eurasia steppe region is the Stipa grandis community. At present, there are well-preserved primary S. grandis communities in the steppe region. We chose the primary S. grandis community and long-term overgrazing community of S. grandis, and applied an O-Ring function combined with null models to analyze the spatial pattern of S. grandis. The results showed that the spatial pattern of S. grandis was overdispersed in the primary community at the small scale, while it was clustered in the long-term overgrazing community. These results indicate that competition was the main interaction in the primary community, while positive interactions dominated in the long-term overgrazing community. Therefore, these results verified the stress gradient hypothesis and proved that long-term overgrazing altered population spatial patterns.

    Evaluation of in situ conservation effectiveness on medicinal vascular plants in national nature reserves in central China
    Chi Xiulian, Guo Ting, Wang Qinggang, Jing Zhixian, Zhang Xiaobo, Li Xiaolin, Sun Kai, Wang Tielin, Yang Guang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  135-143.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019233
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    The conservation of wild resources including medicinal plants has drawn widespread attention from the academic community and society at large. This study integrates the results of scientific investigation reports of 49 national nature reserves (NNR), other related literature, and “the Fourth National Census of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources” in central China (including Hunan, Hubei, and Henan provinces) to establish a catalogue of medicinal vascular plants (MVP). Based on this dataset and the catalogue of plant species in central China, this study evaluated the effectiveness of NNR networks on conservation of MVPs in central China. We show that 6,071 MVP species, including 1,479 endemic MVP species, 224 threatened MVP species, and 448 frequently used MVP species were covered by at least one NNR in central China. Their in situ conseravation rates were 81.93%, 87.98%, 78.87% and 91.80%, respectively. However, about 32.16% (2,383 MVP species, including 644 endemic MVP species, 119 threatened MVP species and 69 frequently used MVP species) of all the conserved MVPs were only found in 1-5 NNRs. The NNR of the forest ecosystem type performed the best protection efficiency, covering a total of 5,875 MVP species, 1,444 endemic MVP species, 211 threatened MVP species and 442 frequently used MVP species. National nature reserves of Shennongjia, Jintongshan, Mangshan, Xingdoushan and Hunan Shunhuangshan were hotspots for richness of all MVP species, endemic MVP species, and threatened MVP species, playing important roles in MVP conservation in central China. As a whole, existing NNRs in central China protect most MVPs in this region. However, there remains an urgent need for in situ protection of MVPs. Conservation gap species are urgently required to continue field dynamic monitoring and other protective activities.

    Species composition of dinoflagellates cysts in ballast tank sediments of foreign ships berthed in Jiangyin Port
    Zhang Jiazhen, Gao Chunlei, Li Yan, Sun Ping, Wang Zongling
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  144-154.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019253
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    In order to explore the species composition and invasion risk of dinoflagellate resting cysts in the sediments of ballast tanks of foreign ships, we identified and analyzed the species of living dinoflagellate cysts in the sediments of five foreign ships ballast tanks in Jiangyin Port based on the morphological characteristics and molecular biology information of dormant cysts and germinating cells. A total of 29 species of dinoflagellate cysts (excluding three unkonwn species), belonging to Gonyaulacoid group, Calcoidinellid group, Gymnodinioid group, Diplopsalid group and Protoperidinioid group, were recorded in ballast sediments. The density of living cysts ranged from 0.73 to 44.3 cysts/g DW. Cysts of toxic and harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense species complex, Protoceratium reticulatum, and Gonyaulax spinifera were found in five ships. In addition, a variety of unrecorded dinoflagellate cyst types in Chinese coasts have been found, one of which was identified as Alexandrium insuetum. Germination and incubation experiments showed that it can proliferate in coastal waters of China. Therefore, Alexandrium insuetum has potential invasion risk and possibility of bloom in coastal China.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    Diversity assessment and protection strategies for the mollusk community in the southern Dongting Lake
    Liu Zhenyuan, Meng Xingliang, Li Zhengfei, Zhang Junqian, Xu Jing, Yin Senlu, Xie Zhicai
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  155-165.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019287
    Abstract ( 1596 )   HTML ( 105 )   PDF (1338KB) ( 1120 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Being the second largest freshwater lake in China, the Dongting Lake supports high biodiversity of endemic mollusks. Although surveys concerning mollusk diversity in this region are plentiful, there is no comprehensive resource for cataloging their diversity. Here, we carried out a comprehensive mollusk diversity assessment in the southern Dongting Lake and identified potential factors driving the observed community patterns, based on combined historical datasets and a five-year field survey (2013-2018). We identified a total of 87 species (Gastropoda: 41 species and Bivalvia: 46 species) belonging to 5 orders, 14 families, 33 genera. Fifty-four species (Gastropoda: 22 species and Bivalvia: 32 species) of mollusks were found, belonging to 5 orders, 12 families, 31 genera. Twenty-one species were in vulnerable condition (Gastropoda: 4 species and Bivalvia: 17 species). Dominant species were Corbicula fluminea, Parafossarulus eximius, Bellamya aeruginosa, Rivularia ovum. Distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) shows that some local physical (substrate and water depth) and chemical (pH, total dissolved solid and total phosphate) factors seemed to regulate mollusk community. Additionally, human activities in the region (such as commercial sand-mining industry, dam construction and coastal land use, overfishing and illegal electric fishing) also have a profound impact on the survival of mollusk. More importantly, anthropogenic pressures have caused a dramatic decline in mollusk diversity in recent decades, possibly leading to local extinction of some previously recorded endemic species. To protect the lake’s mollusk diversity, a series of strategies and practices should be taken by local authorities and the public. These practices could include control and regulation of the illegal sand-mining industry, a ban on overfishing and illegal electric fishing, maintaining the naturally hydrology, recovery of natural riparian zones, and control the discharge of point source and non-point source pollutants. We argued that a mollusk-based reserve should be established to protect mollusk diversity and endemism of the benthos, and possibly the lake as a whole.

    Path analysis of zooplankton diversity and environmental factors in the water sources rivers, Zhejiang Province
    Li Gongguo, Li Ping, Xu Hangying, Yu Haiyan, Yu Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  166-175.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019319
    Abstract ( 1251 )   HTML ( 47 )   PDF (1236KB) ( 909 )   Save
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    In order to understand zooplankton diversity and their relationship with water environmental factors, we monitored zooplankton abundance as a measure of water quality. Forty samples were collected at two sampling stations (H1 and H2) of water sources rivers, Zhejiang Province in the winter (January), spring (April), summer (July) and autumn (October), annually from 2010 to 2014. We also measured environmental variables at the stations. The average abundance of zooplankton in stations H1 and H2 were 1,387.4 ind./L and 873 ind./L, respectively. The abundance of small zooplankton (rotifer + copepod nauplii) accounted for 92.8% of the abundance at station H1 and 91.5% at station H2. Dominant species of Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda in the two sampling stations were Polyarthra trigla, Diaphanosoma brachyurum and Thermocyclops sp., respectively. Multivariate stepwise regression and path analysis showed that N∶P was the limiting factor for Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') of rotifers in winter and had indirect effects (+) on the rotifers mainly through TP. N∶P was also the deciding factor for H' of rotifers in spring and could have greater indirect effects (+) on rotifers in autumn through TN. The content of NH4 +-N and TN were the deciding and limiting factors, respectively, for size diversity index (Hs) of crustaceans in winter. DO was a limiting factor for species richness of total zooplankton (d) in summer, having a large indirect effect (+) mainly through pH. We believe this to be due to significant increases in H' of rotifers with the rising DO (P < 0.01), while the Hs index of crustacean declined significantly (P < 0.05). The relationship between water environmental factors and zooplankton diversity in water source rivers provides the possibility for ecological monitoring of water sources.

    The current status, problems, and policy suggestions for reconstructing the plant tree of life
    Wang Wei, Liu Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  176-188.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019373
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    In 1859, Charles Darwin put forward the concept of the tree of life (TOL), a metaphor for charting relationships between organisms in space and time in his The Origin of Species. The TOL is a cornerstone in evolutionary theory and makes sense of all biology. Decades of research in plant molecular systematics has led to substantial progress in understanding many aspects of the plant TOL. Here, we summarized five major aspects of reconstructing the plant TOL, which are being studied at the present day and will continue to be goals moving forward. These include: (1) constructing genus- and species-level phylogenies for plant groups; (2) resolving deep-time and/or rapidly divergent phylogenetic relationships using genomic approaches; (3) updating classification systems by combining morphological and molecular data; (4) integrating fossil taxa into phylogenies derived from extant taxa; and (5) building big trees using supermatrix methods. We then outlined the current state of plant molecular systematics and highlight existing problems in the field, specifically in regard to China. Finally, we propose the corresponding guidelines and policy suggestions for the continued study of China’s reconstruction of the plant TOL.

    The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China
    Wang Kai, Ren Jinlong, Chen Hongman, Lyu Zhitong, Guo Xianguang, Jiang Ke, Chen Jinmin, Li Jiatang, Guo Peng, Wang Yingyong, Che Jing
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  189-218.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019238
    Abstract ( 12687 )   HTML ( 392 )   PDF (4341KB) ( 8881 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    We updated the checklists of extant, native amphibians and reptiles of China based on the previously published checklist of reptiles in 2015, the online checklist of amphibians on the database AmphibiaChina, newly published data as of December 2019, and previously uncollected literature prior to 2015. In total, the amphibian fauna of China consists of 515 species in 62 genera, 13 families, and three orders (Anura: 431 species in 47 genera and nine families; Caudata: 82 species in 14 genera and four families; Gymnophiona: one species in one genus and one family), while the reptilian fauna of China consists of 511 species in 135 genera, 35 families, and three orders (Crocodylia: one species in one genus and one family; Testudines: 34 species in 18 genera and six families; Squamata 466 species in 116 genera and 28 families [Serpentes: 256 species in 73 genera, 18 families; Lacertilia: 211 species in 43 genera and 10 families]). Specifically, for amphibians between 2015 and 2019, one family was recorded from China for the first time, two new genera were described, a genus was resurrected, a genus was recorded from China for the first time, 74 new, valid species were either described or resurrected, 18 recognized species were recorded from China for the first time, and six genera and eight species were considered as junior synonyms. For reptiles between 2015 and 2019, five subfamilies were elevated to the full family status, one new subfamily and a new genus were described, three genera were resurrected, three recognized genera were recorded from China for the first time, 35 new species were described, two species were resurrected from synonyms, six subspecies were elevated to the full species status, 10 recognized species were recorded from China for the first time, four genera and four species were considered as junior synonyms, and distribution records of one genus and four recognized species were removed from China. Furthermore, by reviewing literature before 2015, we make additional changes on the previous reptile checklist, including adding new records of three genera, elevating three subspecies to full species status, adding new records of three recognized species, synonymizing three genera and two species as junior synonyms, and removing the distribution record of a single recognized species from China. Lastly, we revise the Chinese common names of some reptilian groups with recomandations to maintain the stability of the Chinese common names. The number of new species and new national records for amphibians and reptiles between 2015 and 2019 in China accounts for 17.1% and 10.2% of the total number of species in each group, respectively. Because new species are described at considerable speed and given the constant changes in the taxonomy of China’s herpetofuna, it is crucial to update the checklists regularly and discuss the existing taxonomic problems, so that such information reflects the most current state of knowledge and are available for taxonomic researchers and conservation biologists alike.

    Field monitoring of mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China
    Yang Xiongwei, Wu Ankang, Zou Qixian, Li Guangrong, Zhang Mingming, Hu Canshi, Su Haijun
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  219-225.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019306
    Abstract ( 1439 )   HTML ( 55 )   PDF (1437KB) ( 1216 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    To characterize the mammal and bird diversity and enrich the bio-inventory resources of Mayanghe, a national nature reserve in Guizhou Province, China, a year-around field monitoring study was conducted by means of camera-trapping via an installation scheme of a kilometer grid across the whole region, from July 2018 to August 2019. We identified up to 20 species of mammals (taxonomically belonging to 5 orders, 10 families, 18 genera) and 42 species of birds (7 orders, 18 families, 34 genera). Among them, 11 species were newly recorded in the nature reserve, and 2 species (Trachypithecus francoisi and Syrmaticus ellioti) are Class I, 7 species are Class II national protected animals including Viverra zibetha, Syrmaticus reevesii, etc. Based on the general relative abundance index (RAI) of photographed species, Muntiacus reevesi, Arctonyx collaris, and Sus scrofa were common mammals in this region, while Chrysolophus pictus and Bambusicola thoracicus were the most frequently photographed terrestrial birds. The time-period RAI revealed Muntiacus reevesi can keep active in the periods of 6:00-15:00 and 17:00-21:00 in this region. Arctonyx collaris preferred to be active in the early morning (5:00-6:00) and night (19:00-23:00), while Sus scrofa was most active from 6:00 to 7:00. Comparatively, pheasants frequently moved at noon or in the afternoon. Chrysolophus pictus had its highest activity peak from 12:00 to 13:00, and Bambusicola thoracicus had two activity periods, one from 14:00-15:00 and another from 16:00-17:00. Species richness measured by the average captured species per camera, indicated that mammals and birds were relatively abundant in the buffer zone, shrub, and coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest, as well as in elevation ranges of 800-1,200 m. Our results are useful for understanding current biodiversity and promoting the conservation management in this region.

    Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Foping National Nature Reserve, China
    Ma Yisheng, Ma Qingqing, He Nianjun, Zhu Dapeng, Zhao Kaihui, Liu Hongcai, Li Shuai, Sun Liang, Tang Liubin
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  226-230.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019240
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    From January 2015 to December 2017, 130 camera traps were installed on 57 transects to investigate mammals and avian diversity in the Foping National Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province. After an extensive survey effort of 101,220 camera-days, we recorded 36,100 independent images including 30,563 of mammals and 3,244 of birds. We recorded 29 wild mammal species belonging to 15 families and 6 orders. The 5 most detected mammal species were Budorcas bedfordi (RAI = 11.53), Sus scrofa (RAI = 4.80), Muntiacus reevesi (RAI = 4.35), Ailuropoda melanoleuca (RAI = 1.81) and Hystrix hodgsoni (RAI = 1.13). A total of 54 wild bird species belonging to 14 families and 8 orders were identified, and the 5 most detected birds were Chrysolophus pictus (RAI = 0.97), Tragopan temminckii (RAI = 0.74), Myophonus caeruleus (RAI = 0.51), Urocissa erythrorhyncha (RAI = 0.13) and Garrulax pectoralis (RAI = 0.12). We recorded four new bird and one new mammal species in the Foping National Nature Reserve, including Geokichla sibirica, Turdus obscurus, Zoothera dixoni, Butastur indicus and Meles leucurus. Our results provide basic information on the community structure, spatial distribution and relative abundance of terrestrial wild mammals and birds in the Foping National Nature Reserve, with guidelines for reserve management and long-term monitoring of Foping.

    Species diversity of epiphyllous liverworts in Qianjiangyuan National Park, Zhejiang
    Bai Yang, Chen Shengwen, Qian Haiyuan, Yu Shunhai, Xu Yiming, Zhang Zhixin, Shen Chao, Chen Yuqi, Zhang Meiqi, Yu Jianping, Zhu Ruiliang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  231-237.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019273
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    Nineteen species, belonging to nine genera in four families, of epiphyllous liverworts from Qianjiangyuan National Park are reported. Among them, 17 species belonging to eight genera in three families are newly reported. Compared with other areas of China with the same latitude, the number of species in Qiangjiangyuan National Park is the second only to Motuo of Xizang (Tibet). Cololejeunea longifolia and Leptolejeunea subacuta are most common species. The rich diversity of species indicates that the environment of Qianjiangyuan National Park is suitable for the growth of epiphyllous liverworts, which may be due to the long-term effective protection of the area.

    Progress and prospects of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework
    Geng Yijia, Tian Yu, Li Junsheng, Xu Jing
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  238-243.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019363
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    The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is one of the main focuses of current negotiations for the Convention on Biological Diversity. This paper outlines the background of the “Framework,” introduces the OEWG-1 negotiation process, comprehensively analyzes the views of the Parties in the relevant consultation processes, introduces the current consensuses and differences of the Parties on the various elements of the “Framework,” assesses the progress of the “Framework,” and puts forward four suggestions on the design of the “Framework”. These suggestions include: (1) Clarify the specific implementation path of transformational change; (2) Balance the three major objectives of the CBD; (3) Strengthen collaboration with other global governance processes; (4) Strengthen the “Framework” assessment and review of global and the Parties' progress in compliance. Finally, we put forward suggestions for China: (1) Update the domestic NBSAP in a timely manner; (2) Strengthen the coordination of domestic biodiversity work; (3) Continue to strengthen the ecological environmental law enforcement and responsibility mechanism. These recommendations provide a reference for the Parties to better participate in the “Framework” development process and gain insight into the framework and its progress in order to provide useful feedback for the formulation of the “Framework.”

    Biodiversity sensitive issues from changes in the strategic objectives of the financial mechanism for the Convention on Biological Diversity
    Liu Haiou, Zhang Fengchun, Zhao Fuwei, Du Leshan, Xue Dayuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  244-252.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019323
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    The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the only financial mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity, providing financial support to developing countries and countries with economies in transition in accordance with the requirements of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the policy orientation of the GEF. From the pilot period to the current seventh replenishment of the GEF (GEF-7), the Strategic Objectives in the focal area of biodiversity in each replenishment period have also undergone several changes. References exist for us to carry out related work in the future to study the changes of biodiversity sensitive issues involved in the Strategic Objectives of the financial mechanism. This paper catalogues sensitive issues involved in the Strategic Objectives of the biodiversity Focal Area in each replenishment period of the GEF, analyzes the changes of each issue in the amount and content of funds in each GEF period, and compares and analyzes the current situation in China. Furthermore, we propose recommendations, including strengthening the consideration of the representativeness of ecosystems in protected areas, enhancing the sustainability of protected areas, comprehensively promoting the mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation, etc., with a view to providing reference for the implementation for the Convention on Biological Diversity, biodiversity management and related research works.

    Biological invasions: Are their impacts precisely knowable or not?
    He Weiming
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  253-255.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020008
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    Biological invasions are ubiquitous worldwide and have demonstrable negative impacts (e.g., rapid biodiversity losses, substantial economic losses, decreased ecosystem services, and irreversible environmental damage). Quantifying the impacts of biological invasions is among the core questions in invasion biology, and also a practical issue in ecosystem management. Existing approaches have two serious shortcomings: (1) the absence of true controls and (2) the presence of confounding non-invasion effects. These approaches, therefore, cannot precisely quantify the impacts of biological invasions in the field. Here, I explicitly highlight these long-overlooked drawbacks when quantifying invasion impacts, and propose two potential solutions: (1) creating true controls at the beginning of studies and (2) considering a “synchronous control” over the course of an experiment. These solutions might help us to precisely understand the impacts of biological invasions.

    Insights on the legislation, law enforcement and management of zoonosis from the epidemic of new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19)
    Jiang Zhigang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (2):  256-261.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020053
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    Since the beginning of the 21st century, two major infectious diseases, SARS and new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), have shocked China as well as the world. Studies suggested bats, as well as pangolins may be the vectors of both epidemics, prompting calls for a ban on eating wild animals. In fact, the country has already legislated against the consumption of legally protected and illegally sourced wild animals. Market survey found no bats for sale in those markets in 16 major Chinese megacities after SARS. Therefore, how did SARS-CoV and the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) spread from wild animals to humans? What lessons should we learn from these two epidemics? Besides a total ban on consumption wild animal meets from illegal source, I suggest to perfect the legislation of zoonosis and to fill the gaps in the laws concern with the prevention of zoonosis; to amend the provisions of the existing law governing the managing of zoonosis contaminated areas. A permanent institution should be set up to cover the whole process of wildlife epidemic investigation and monitoring, human-wildlife interface, quarantine, immunization of susceptible populations, popularization of law and scientific knowledge, thus to realize early prevention, early detection and early treatment of zoonosis to ensure public health security. I also recommend that to establish a mechanism for the prevention and control of zoonosis, to identify wildlife hosts of zoonosis pathogens, to strengthen bat monitoring, and to issue red lines for the control of zoonosis. Additionally, we shall strengthen law enforcement to prevent zoonosis; improve animal production management, marketing, and quarantine procedures. I urge people to change their habit of pursuing fresh animal foods by killing animals on site in markets.

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