Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 88-96.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018203

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Conservation easement-inspired adaptive management methods for natural protected areas: A case study on Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Wang Yufei1, Su Hongqiao1, Zhao Xinrui1, Su Yang1, Luo Min2, *()   

  1. 1 Management World Magazine, Development Research Center of the State Council, Beijing 100026
    2 Environmental Protection Magazine, Beijing 100062
  • Received:2018-07-30 Accepted:2018-10-10 Online:2019-02-21
  • Luo Min

It is difficult to carry out highly effective management in the natural protected areas of China due to complicated land ownership and lack of scientific research, especially in the National Park pilots. This paper proposes a conservation easement policy based on focused conservation needs by integrating an innovative adaptive management method and an ecological compensation plan, using the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot as an example. First, the major conservation needs of the ecosystem elements are refined by determining the spatial scope of the easement implementation according to the land type. Secondly, the relationship between conservation need and the livelihood of local residents is clarified to form the classified conservation list. The evaluation method for easement is designed in three dimensions: improvement of monitoring indicators of the ecosystem, compliance with positive and negative actions and community capacity cultivation. Finally, the easement contract is formed by outlining the clear rights and responsibilities of the easement donor and donee. A scientific and flexible plan for ecological compensation is also carried out. This method can effectively solve the problem of land resource fragmentation at both on the ecosystem and landscape scale, which is normally caused by inconsistent ownership, as well as the conflict between community development and ecological conservation. Finally, this plan can be applied to the natural protected areas in southern China where the collective forest coverage is relatively high.

Key words: ecological compensation, adaptive management, conservation easement, natural protected areas, national park

Fig. 1

Adaptive management framework based on conservation easement "

Fig. 2

Technical route for the ecological compensation mechanism based on easement policy in China biodiversity. Biodiversity- offset: after certain measures, the impact of the engineering projects on the ecosystem diversity can not be negative."

Table 1

Basic information of key villages in Qianjiangyuan National Park"

Natural village
Major industry
Core conservation targets
苏庄 Suzhuang 龙潭口 Longtankou 118 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、油茶
Tea and sasanqua
Ecosystem and water sources
东山 Dongshan 106 生态保育区
Ecological conservation zone
Tea and sasanqua
Ecosystem and water sources
外长坑头 Waichangkengtou 80 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、农作物
Tea and crops
生态系统 Ecosystem
内长坑头 Neichangkengtou 6 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、农作物
Tea and crops
生态系统 Ecosystem
青安塘 Qing’antang 24 生态保育区
Ecological conservation zone
茶叶 Tea 生态系统 Ecosystem
冲凹 Chong’ao 6 核心保护区 Core protected zone 茶叶、养蜂
Tea and beekeeping
生态系统 Ecosystem
岭里头 Linglitou 2 核心保护区 Core protected zone 生态系统 Ecosystem
齐溪 Qixi 大鲍山 Dabaoshan 79 核心保护区 Core protected zone 生态系统 Ecosystem
长虹 Changhong 河滩 Hetan 99 生态保育区
Ecological conservation zone
Tea and crops
Ecosystem and water sources

Table 2

Compensation requirements of local citizens from the Qianjiangyuan National Park"

直接补贴 Direct subsidy 社会福利 Social welfare 生计带动 Income increase
Subsidies for liquefied gas
Subsidies for scenic spot development
Subsidies for ecological forest
Subsidies for basic farmland
Subsidies for the restrictions and encouragements of easement
Subsidies for old and disabled people
Installation of wired or wireless network
Diversified activities for entertainment
Improvement of production and living infrastructure (waste treatment, waste water treatment, road construction, etc.)
Improvement of public service, including medical care and education, etc.
Tea, sasanqua and other products with National park brand
Hotels, agricultural machinery training, protected area management, utilization of forest resources, and ecotourism, etc.

Table 3

Positive and negative behavior list of local citizens (agricultural lands) a"

Conservation targets
Positive or negative
Specific actions
Participant measures
Environmental background, water source and ecosystem services
Use of unapproved fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides
个人 Individual
使用未经发酵处理的粪便作为肥料 Use of non-fermented manure 个人 Individual
秸秆焚烧 Straw burning 个人 Individual
合理套种, 合理密植 Reasonable inter-planting and compact planting 集体/个人
Collective /individual
立体农业 Stereoscopic agriculture 个人 Individual
Species, populations, communities and ecosystems
Expelling or catching wild animals that entering cultivated land
个人 Individual
Clear separation between cultivated land and natural environment by using the fences, etc.
个人 Individual
Using local plants as the fence between natural environment and plantation
Collective /individual
Originality of cultural heritage, etc.
保留传统农耕文化 Preserving traditional farming culture 个人 Individual
Moderating development of cultivated land landscape, ecotourism and environmental education
集体 Collective

Table 4

Part of the monitoring indicators for the diversity of wild animals and plants in the Qianjiangyuan National Park forest ecosystem"

分类 Category 监测指标/方式 Monitoring indicators/methods 周期 Period
Wild plant monitoring
种类 Species 物种名称、数量 Name and number of species 每年2次
Twice a year
变化 Changes 无人机监测各种植被类型面积和高度的变化
Changes in areas and height of different plant types by using unmanned aerial vehicle (UVA) monitoring
Wild animal monitoring
种类 Species 物种名称、数量 Name and number of species 每年2次
Twice a year
种群 Populations 分布格局 Distribution pattern
物种相对多度指数 Specie relative abundance index (RAI) 长期 Long-term
资源利用 Resource utilization 乔、灌、草植物的名称、采集地点、采集数量、利用部位、用途、交易方式
Names of arbors, shrubs and herbs, collecting location and numbers, available parts, using ways and trading ways
Once a month
人为干扰 Human disturbance 干扰方式和强度 Disturbance mode and intensity 每年1次 Once a year

Table 5

Evaluation system of the easement in Qianjiangyuan National Park"

Evaluation items
Evaluation subjects
Evaluation period
Evaluation targets
Positive and negative individual behaviors in the community
The community evaluates individuals
30% 每年
Once a year
Compliance to the positive and negative behaviors listed in the easement contract
Positive and negative behaviors in the community
National park management agency evaluates the community
20% 每年
Once a year
Routine monitoring indicator evaluation
The third-party evaluation
30% 每年
Once a year
Ecological conservation effects
Community capacity improving
The third-party evaluation
20% 每年
Once a year
Community capacity improvement
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