Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (9): 1016-1022.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018074

• Data Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Community composition and spatial structure in the Badagongshan 25 ha Forest Dynamics Plot in Hunan Province

Yunzhi Qin1, 2, Jiaxin Zhang1, 2, Jianming Liu1, 2, Mengting Liu1, 2, Dan Wan1, 2, Hao Wu1, 2, Yang Zhou1, 2, Hongjie Meng1, 2, Zhiqiang Xiao1, 2, Handong Huang1, Yaozhan Xu1, Zhijun Lu1, Xiujuan Qiao1, *(), Mingxi Jiang1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2018-03-08 Accepted:2018-06-03 Online:2019-01-05
  • Qiao Xiujuan
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Mount Badagongshan (BDGS) National Nature Reserve is located in the northern margin of Wuling Mountain, which harbor large areas of evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forests. These forests have high species diversity and possess a complex community structure. In 2010-2011, a 25 ha (500 m × 500 m) forest dynamic plot was established in this reserve according to the standards of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). Within this plot, all woody plants with DBH ≥ 1 cm were mapped and identified to species level. Based on these data, we analyzed community composition and spatial structure of the vegetation community. We found 186,575 individuals in the plot, belonging to 53 families, 114 genera and 232 species. There were 38 species that had > 1,000 individuals each and these species comprised 87% of total abundance. The most abundant species was Litsea elongata. There were 103 rare species, i.e. with ≤ 25 individuals, which accounted for 44% of all woody species but only made up 0.4% of the total abundance. Across all individuals in the plot, the average DBH was 5.41 cm. Individuals with DBH ≤ 5 cm accounted for 68.4% of the overall abundance and the 7,474 individuals with DBH ≥ 20 cm accounted for only 4% of the overall abundance. The frequency distribution of DBH appeared to have a reverse “J” shape, suggesting that the community was maintaining successful regeneration and normal growth patterns. The number of species increased linearly with increasing area. When the sampling area was increased to 10 ha, we recorded 201 species, which represented more than 90% species of the entire plot. These 1-ha samples had average abundance of 7,261.8 ± 974.8 (SD), average species richness of 128.2 ± 8.2 (SD), average of 3.56 ± 0.11 (SD) for Shannon-Wiener index, and 1.69 ± 0.06 (SD) for Pielou evenness index. There was no significant relationship between abundance and the diversity indices, suggesting that instead of the sampling effect, some other mechanisms affected the species diversity pattern in BDGS plot.

Key words: community structure, Wuling Mountain, α diversity;, species-abundance distribution, species-area relationship

Fig. 1

Species abundance distribution in Badagongshan 25 ha dynamic plot. The left is species rank from most abundant to most rare; the right is the histogram of species number on log scale."

Fig. 2

Histogram of DBH in Badagongshan dynamic plot. a, Based on each individual; b, Based on the mean DBH for each species."

Fig. 3

Individual-area relationship and species-area relationship in Badagongshan dynamic plot"

Fig. 4

Spatial variation in α diversity in Badagongshan dynamic plot"

[1] Cao TR, Qi CJ, Yu XL, Long CL, Zhou JR, Zhang QF (1993) Study on Fagus lucida forests in Badagong mountains of Hunan and their flora. Journal of Central-South Forestry College, 13, 8-16. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[曹铁如, 祁承经, 喻勋林, 龙成良, 周建仁, 张全发 (1993) 八大公山亮叶水青冈林及其植物区系的研究. 中南林学院学报, 13, 8-16.]
[2] Chen GX, Liao WB, Ao CQ, Liu WQ, Zhang HD (2002) Studies on character and feature of seed plants flora of Wulingshan region. Bulletin of Botanical Research, 22, 98-120. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈功锡, 廖文波, 敖成齐, 刘蔚秋, 张宏达 (2002) 武陵山地区种子植物区系特征与性质研究. 植物研究, 22, 98-120.]
[3] Condit R (1998) Tropical Forest Census Plots. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[4] Ding H, Fang YM, Yang XH, Yuan FY, He LH, Yao JF, Wu J, Chi B, Li Y, Chen SF, Chen TT, Xu HG (2016) Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China. Biodiversity Science, 24, 875-887. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[丁晖, 方炎明, 杨新虎, 袁发银, 何立恒, 姚剑飞, 吴俊, 迟斌, 李垚, 陈水飞, 陈婷婷, 徐海根 (2016) 黄山亚热带常绿阔叶林的群落特征. 生物多样性, 24, 875-887.]
[5] Ding H, Fang YM, Yang Q, Chen X, Yuan FY, Xu H, He LH, Yan J, Chen TT, Yu CJ, Xu HG (2015) Community characteristics of a mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot in the Wuyi Mountains, Fujian Province, southeastern China. Biodiversity Science, 23, 479-492. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[丁晖, 方炎明, 杨青, 陈晓, 袁发银, 徐辉, 何立恒, 严靖, 陈婷婷, 余朝健, 徐海根 (2015) 武夷山中亚热带常绿阔叶林样地的群落特征. 生物多样性, 23, 479-492.]
[6] Hu SY (1980) The Metasequoia flora and its phytogeographic significance. Journal of the Amold Arboretum, 61, 41-94.
[7] Li JH (2005) Revised Edition of the Dictionary of Environmental Science and Engineering Technology. Chinese Environmental Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[李建华 (2005) 环境科学与工程技术辞典. 中国环境出版社, 北京.]
[8] Lu ZJ, Bao DC, Guo YL, Lu JM, Wang QG, He D, Zhang KH, Xu YZ, Liu HB, Meng HJ, Huang HD, Wei XZ, Liao JX, Qiao XJ, Jiang MX, Gu ZR, Liao CL (2013) Community composition and structure of Badagongshan forest dynamic plot in a mid-subtropical mountain evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest, Central China. Plant Science Journal, 31, 336-344. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[卢志军, 鲍大川, 郭屹立, 路俊盟, 王庆刚, 何东, 张奎汉, 徐耀粘, 刘海波, 孟红杰, 黄汉东, 魏新增, 廖建雄, 乔秀娟, 江明喜, 谷志容, 廖春林 (2013) 八大公山中亚热带山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林物种组成与结构. 植物科学学报, 31, 336-344.]
[9] Qiao XJ, Lu JM, Wang QG, Tang ZY, Franklin SB, Zhang JX, Lu ZJ, Bao DC, Guo YL, Xu YZ, Jiang MX (2015) Determines of the beta diversity in a subtropical forest in central China. Scientific Reports, 5, 17043.
[10] Song YC (2004) Tentative classification scheme of evergreen broad-leaved forests of China. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 28, 435-448. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[宋永昌 (2004) 中国常绿阔叶林分类试行方案. 植物生态学报, 28, 435-448.]
[11] Wang SX, Zhao L, Li N, Guo H, Wang XA, Duan RY (2016) The relative contributions of rare and common species to the patterns of species richness in plant communities. Biodiversity Science, 24, 658-664. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王世雄, 赵亮, 李娜, 郭华, 王孝安, 段仁燕 (2016) 稀有种和常见种对植物群落物种丰富度格局的相对贡献. 生物多样性, 24, 658-664.]
[12] Wu ZY (1980) Vegetation of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[吴征镒 (1980) 中国植被. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[13] Yang QS, Ma ZP, Xie YB, Zhang ZG, Wang ZH, Liu HM, Li P, Zhang N, Wang DL, Yang HB, Fang XF, Yan ER, Wang XH (2011) Community structure and species composition of an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong’s 20 ha dynamic plot, Zhejiang Province, eastern China. Biodiversity Science, 19, 215-223. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[杨庆松, 马遵平, 谢玉彬, 张志国, 王樟华, 刘何铭, 李萍, 张娜, 王达力, 杨海波, 方晓峰, 阎恩荣, 王希华 (2011) 浙江天童20 ha常绿阔叶林动态监测样地的群落特征. 生物多样性, 19, 215-223.]
[14] Yao L, Cui GF, Yi YM, Huang YT, Feng G, Liu JC, Ai XR (2016) Species diversity of woody plants in Mulinzi Nature Reserve of Hubei Province. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 52, 1-9. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[姚兰, 崔国发, 易咏梅, 黄永涛, 冯广, 刘峻城, 艾训儒 (2016) 湖北木林子保护区大样地的木本植物多样性. 林业科学, 52, 1-9.]
[15] Yao L, Ai XR, Lü SA, Feng G, Liu JC, Huang YT (2015) Characteristics of community types and structures, and species diversity of natural secondary forests in Xingdou Mountain of Hubei Province. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 51, 1-7. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[姚兰, 艾训儒, 吕世安, 冯广, 刘峻城, 黄永涛 (2015) 湖北星斗山天然次生林的群落类型、结构与物种多样性特征. 林业科学, 51, 1-7.]
[16] Yao LJ, Yao L, Yi YM, Ai XR, Feng G, Liu JC, Lin Y, Huang W, Ding Y, Zang RG (2017) Species composition and community structure of a 6-ha subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest dynamics plot in the Qizimei Mountains, Hubei Province. Biodiversity Science, 25, 275-284. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[姚良锦, 姚兰, 易咏梅, 艾训儒, 冯广, 刘峻城, 林勇, 黄伟, 丁易, 臧润国 (2017) 湖北七姊妹山亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林的物种组成和群落结构. 生物多样性, 25, 275-284.]
[17] Ye WH, Cao HL, Huang ZL, Lian JY, Wang ZG, Li L, Wei SG, Wang ZM (2008) Community structure of a 20 hm2 lower subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest plot in Dinghushan, China. Journal of Plant Ecology (Chinese Version), 32, 274-286. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[叶万辉, 曹洪麟, 黄忠良, 练琚愉, 王志高, 李林, 魏识广, 王章明 (2008) 鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20公顷样地群落特征研究. 植物生态学报, 32, 274-286.]
[18] Ying JS (2001) Species diversity and distribution pattern of seed plants in China. Biodiversity Science, 9, 393-398. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[应俊生 (2001) 中国种子植物物种多样性及其分布格局. 生物多样性, 9, 393-398.]
[19] Zhu Y, Zhao GF, Zhang LW, Shen GC, Mi XC, Ren HB, Yu MJ, Chen JH, Chen SW, Fang T, Ma KP (2008) Community composition and structure of Gutianshan forest dynamic plot in a mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, east China. Journal of Plant Ecology (Chinese Version), 32, 262-273. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[祝燕, 赵谷风, 张俪文, 沈国春, 米湘成, 任海保, 于明坚, 陈建华, 陈声文, 方腾, 马克平 (2008) 古田山中亚热带常绿阔叶林动态监测样地: 群落组成与结构. 植物生态学报, 32, 262-273.]
[1] Xing Yuan, Wu Xiaoping, Ouyang Shan, Zhang Junqian, Xu Jing, Yin Senlu, Xie Zhicai. Assessment of macrobenthos biodiversity and potential human-induced stressors in the Ganjiang River system [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 648-657.
[2] Xie Fenglin, Zhou Quan, Shi Hang, Shu Xiao, Zhang Kerong, Li Tao, Feng Shuiyuan, Zhang Quanfa, Dang Haishan. Species composition and community characteristics of a 25 ha forest dynamics plot in deciduous broad-leaved forest, Qinling Mountains, north-central China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(4): 439-448.
[3] Yang Lufei, Chen Linlin, Li Xiaojing, Zhou Zhengquan, Liu Bo, Song Bo, Li Bingjun, Li Baoquan. Effect of seasonal hypoxia on macrobenthic communities in the Muping Marine Ranch, Yantai, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 200-210.
[4] Xu Xiang, Zhang Huayong, Xie Ting, Sun Qingqing, Tian Yonglan. Elevational pattern of seed plant diversity in Xishuangbanna and its mechanisms [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(7): 678-689.
[5] Wei Mo,Zhiliang Wang,You Li,Jianjun Guo,Runzhi Zhang. Faunal communities of deep soil layers in suburban Beijing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(3): 248-257.
[6] Yuhang Li, Wandong Chen, Houcai Cai, Zhongmin Sun, Kuidong Xu. Spatio-temporal variation of benthic diatom diversity and community structure in a sandy intertidal zone of the Nanji Islands, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(9): 981-989.
[7] Ling-Zhao TAN, Chun-Yu FAN, Xiu-Hua FAN. Relationships between species diversity or community structure and productivity of woody-plants in a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Jiaohe, Jilin, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2017, 41(11): 1149-1156.
[8] Hongying Zhou, Xuemei Yao, Li Li, Taonian Geng, Ying Zhang. Scleractinian coral community structure and distribution in the coastal waters surrounding Hainan Island [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(10): 1123-1130.
[9] Quan FANG, Yi-Zhen LIU, Gang GE. Characteristics of plant communities containing rare conifers in Poyang Lake Basin, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2016, 40(9): 952-957.
[10] Deyi Wang,Jianfeng Hao,Yan Li,Jinqiu Qi,Zengli Pei,Yujia Huang,Qian Jiang,Ya Chen. Examination of edge effects in a Cryptomeria fortunei plantation in Zhougong Mountain, western Sichuan [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(8): 940-947.
[11] Hongyan Liu,Chaojie Yang,Peidong Zhang,Wentao Li,Xiaolong Yang,Xiumei Zhang. Demersal nekton community structure of artificial reef zones in Laoshan Bay, Qingdao [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(8): 896-906.
[12] Mei Yang,Xinzheng Li,Yong Xu,Hongfa Wang,Baolin Zhang. Seasonal variations in macrobenthic communities in the subtidal zones of Jiaozhou Bay [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(7): 820-830.
[13] Chaofeng Wang,Haibo Li,Wuchang Zhang,Li Zhao,Yuan Zhao,Tian Xiao. Analyzing the tintinnid community structure and distribution in the surface waters southeast of Hawaii from a cruise in 2013 [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(7): 831-837.
[14] Jun Sun,Bing Xue. Marine phytoplankton diversity and the impact of global climate change [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(7): 739-747.
[15] Zhi-Gao WANG, Zhong-Xin ZHANG, Wen-Ge WANG, Jun CHU. Preliminary analysis of forest community structure of Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve in Yuexi County, Anhui Province, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2016, 40(6): 615-619.
Full text



[1] Yu Wang,Huiyong Zhang,Peng Xiang,Youyin Ye,Gengming Lin,Qingliang Yang,Mao Lin. Observing the morphological features of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths using atomic force microscopy[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(7): 847 -854 .
[2] LI Jun, WANG Xue-Chun, SHAO Ming-An, ZHAO Yu-Juan, LI Xiao-Fang. Simulation of biomass and soil desiccation of Robinia pseudoacacia forestlands on semi-arid and semi-humid regions of China’s Loess Plateau[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2010, 34(3): 330 -339 .
[3] Zhi-Duan Chen, Tuo Yang, Li Lin, Li-Min Lu, Hong-Lei Li, Miao Sun, Bing Liu, Min Chen, Yan-Ting Niu, Jian-Fei Ye, Zhi-Yong Cao, Hong-Mei Liu, Xiao-Ming Wang, Wei Wang, Jing-Bo Zhang, Zhen Meng, Wei Cao, Jian-Hui Li, Sheng-Dan Wu, Hui-Ling Zhao, Zhong-Jian Liu, Zhi-Yuan Du, Qing-Feng Wang, Jing Guo, Xin-Xin Tan, Jun-Xia Su, Lin-Jing Zhang, Lei-Lei Yang, Yi-Ying Liao, Ming-He Li, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Shih-Wen Chung, Jian Zhang, Kun-Li Xiang, Rui-Qi Li, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Shi-Liang Zhou, Jin-Hua Ran, Xiao-Quan Wang, Xiao-Hua Jin, You-Sheng Chen, Tian-Gang Gao, Jian-Hua Li, Shou-Zhou Zhang, An-Ming Lu, China Phylogeny Consortium. Tree of life for the genera of Chinese vascular plants[J]. J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(4): 277 -306 .
[4] LI Sheng-Sheng,WANG Shi-Jun, BEI Yue-Min. On Some Dispersed Cordaitean Cuticles from Cathaysian Flora in the Permian of China and Their Significance[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2003, 45(5): 517 -522 .
[5] WEN Xue-Fa, ZHANG Shi-Chun, SUN Xiao-Min, YU Gui-Rui. RECENT ADVANCES IN H218O ENRICHMENT IN LEAF WATER[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(4): 961 -966 .
[6] Chen Chia-Jui. Sphaerotylos C. J. Chen—A Remarkable New Genus of Urticaceae from China, with Notes on Stigmas of the Family[J]. J Syst Evol, 1985, 23(6): 444 -456 .
[7] Xia Bing, Lan Tao, He Shan-an. Nonlinear Response Function of Growth of Pinus massomiana to Climate[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1996, 20(1): 51 -56 .
[8] Xiufen Che, Xiaobo Yang, Ping Yue, Zhiyang Ou, Donghai Li, Qingshu Wu. Species diversity of forests in Tongguling National Nature Reserve, Hainan[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2006, 14(4): 292 -299 .
[9] SHEN Ze-Hao, FANG Jing-Yun. Niche Comparison of two Fagus Species Based on the Topographic Patterns of Their Populations[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2001, 25(4): 392 -398 .
[10] Yihao Shi, Jiaying Huang, Tianshu Sun, Xuefei Wang, Chenqi Zhu, Yuxi Ai and Hongya Gu. The precise regulation of different COR genes by individual CBF transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2017, 59(2): 118 -133 .