Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 590-600.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018025

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Butterfly diversity and its influencing factors in Saihanwula Nature Reserve

Xuemeng Hong, Xinyu Ge, Junlan Li*()   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021
  • Received:2018-01-24 Accepted:2018-04-10 Online:2018-09-11
  • Li Junlan E-mail:lijunlan@imu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

To explore the factors explaining butterfly diversity in a landscape mosaic of different habitats, we conducted a series of field surveys in the Saihawla National Nature Reserve. This reserve comprised of seven habitats: typical grassland, wetland, mountain valley meadow, degraded grassland, farmland, mountain xerophytic shrub and mountainous shrub. From May to September 2017, we recorded a total of 2,290 butterfly individuals belonging to 63 species, 42 genera, and 5 families. Nymphalidae, with the most species (34) and the most individuals (991), was the dominant family in the reserve. Five species dominated the community: Papilio Xuthus, Pontia daplidice, Aporia crataegi, Aglais urticae, Speyeria aglaja. The species-abundance analysis showed a normal distribution model, suggesting a relatively stable community with the range of butterfly activity extending to different habitats due to the continuity of vegetation types. However, we also found that butterfly distribution in Saihanwula was closely related to the distribution and composition of vegetation among habitats. The Mountainous shrub had the highest biodiversity index and the lowest dominance index, whereas degraded grassland had the lowest biodiversity index and species richness, but the highest dominance index. The Mountain valley meadow had the most number of families, genera, species, and individuals, the degraded grassland had the lowest number of families, genera, species, and individuals. Faunal distribution analysis show that widely distributed species occupied 63.49% and Palaearctic species occupied 36.51%. Furthermore, butterfly diversity in the different habitats of the reserve varied significantly between months. Finally, we found that numbers of butterfly individuals and species increased with higher temperatures, while rainfall had no significant correlation. In conclusion, We believe that appropriate interference is conducive to the development of butterfly diversity, strong human disturbance seriously destroyed grassland environment, affected butterfly survival and reproduction, and reduced butterfly diversity.

Key words: butterfly, diversity, influencing factors, interference, Saihanwula Nature Reserve

Fig. 1

Distribution of the survey line of butterfly in Saihanwula Nature Reserves (black line)"

Table 1

Species and individual number of butterflies in different habitats in Saihanwula National Nature Reserve"


Family

Genus

Species
生境 Habitat type 总计
Total
区系成分
Fauna
composition
I II III IV V VI VII
凤蝶科
Papilionidae
凤蝶属 Papilio 金凤蝶 Papilio machaon 3 7 1 11 W
柑橘凤蝶 Papilio xuthus 2 9 222 2 23 58 316 W
绢蝶属 Parnassius 小红珠绢蝶 Parnassius nomion 4 4 8 W
粉蝶科
Pieridae
绢粉蝶属 Aporia 绢粉蝶 Aporia crataegi 8 14 67 1 84 63 237 W
小檗绢粉蝶 Aporia hippia 22 6 28 W
云粉蝶属 Pontia 云粉蝶 Pontia edusa 73 163 18 6 19 13 12 304 W
粉蝶属 Pieris 菜粉蝶 Pieris rapae 11 19 9 4 6 10 59 W
小粉蝶属 Leptidea 突角小粉蝶 Leptidea amurensis 1 25 4 6 36 P
钩粉蝶属 Gonepteryx 尖钩粉蝶 Gonepteryx mahaguru 2 19 21 W
豆粉蝶属 Colias 斑缘豆粉蝶 Colias erate 2 20 4 35 2 63 W
黑缘豆粉蝶 Colias palaeno 1 1 P
镏金豆粉蝶 Colias chrysotheme 8 3 11 P
橙黄豆粉蝶 Colias fieldii 5 5 W
蛱蝶科
Nymphalidae
环蛱蝶属 Neptis 单环蛱蝶 Neptis rivularis 52 15 41 108 W
重环蛱蝶 Neptis alwina 25 8 11 44 W
黄环蛱蝶 Neptis themis 1 1 8 10 W
线蛱蝶属 Limenitis 折线蛱蝶 Limenitis sydyi 2 46 12 40 100 W
红线蛱蝶 Limenitis populi 8 16 24 W
扬眉线蛱蝶 Limenitis helmanni 19 17 36 W
戟眉线蛱蝶 Limenitis homeyeri 1 1 P
闪蛱蝶属 Apatura 柳紫闪蛱蝶 Apatura iris 3 2 16 21 W
夜迷蛱蝶 Mimathyma nycteis 2 9 7 1 19 P
云蛱蝶属 Brenthis 小豹蛱蝶 Brenthis daphne 1 2 9 3 8 5 28 W
网蛱蝶属 Melitaea 大网蛱蝶 Melitaea scotosia 3 1 5 3 12 P
帝网蛱蝶 Melitaea diamina 8 8 P
红蛱蝶属 Vanessa 小红蛱蝶 Vanessa cardui 3 1 2 6 W
大红蛱蝶 Vanessa indica 2 6 1 9 W
钩蛱蝶属 Polygonia 白钩蛱蝶 Polygonia calbum 3 3 W
黄钩蛱蝶 Polygonia c-aureum 1 1 W
麻蛱蝶属 Aglais 荨麻蛱蝶 Aglais urticae 10 31 95 3 2 5 146 W
蛱蝶属 Nymphalis 白矩朱蛱蝶 Nymphalis vau-album 37 6 26 69 W
朱蛱蝶 Nymphalis xanthomelas 6 43 10 59 W
蜜蛱蝶属 Mellicta 网纹蜜蛱蝶 Mellicta dictynna 12 6 18 P
斑豹蛱蝶属 Speyeria 银斑豹蛱蝶 Speyeria aglaja 5 62 13 34 114 P
灿福蛱蝶 Fabriciana adippe 1 20 1 1 5 28 W
豹蛱蝶属 Argynnis 绿豹蛱蝶 Argynnis paphia 17 9 1 27 W
斐豹蛱蝶属 Argyronome 老豹蛱蝶 Argyronome laodice 9 9 W
链眼蝶属 Lopinga 黄环链眼蝶 Lopinga achine 4 4 P
珍眼蝶属 Coenonympha 爱珍眼蝶 Coenonympha oedippus 6 16 5 27 W
英雄珍眼蝶 Coenonympha hero 3 7 10 W
牧女珍眼蝶 Coenonympha amaryllis 3 3 W
炫黑眼蝶属 Atercoloratus 炫黑眼蝶 Atercoloratus alini 5 1 6 P

Family

Genus

Species
生境 Habitat type 总计
Total
区系成分
Fauna
composition
I II III IV V VI VII
阿芬眼蝶属 Aphantopus 阿芬眼蝶 Aphantopus hyperantus 3 3 P
多眼蝶属 Kirinia 多眼蝶 Kirinia epaminondas 11 4 8 23 W
蛇眼蝶属 Minois 蛇眼蝶 Minois dryas 1 7 2 3 13 W
蟾眼蝶属 Triphysa 蟾眼蝶 Triphysa phryne 1 1 P
白眼蝶属 Melanargia 白眼蝶 Melanargia halimede 1 1 P
灰蝶科
Lycaenidae
新灰蝶属 Neolycaena 白斑新灰蝶 Neolycaena tengstroemi 33 1 34 W
眼灰蝶属 Polyommatus 多眼灰蝶 Polyommatus erotides 1 1 P
爱灰蝶属 Aricia 中华爱灰蝶 Aricia mandschurica 4 2 1 4 11 P
红珠灰蝶属 Lycaeides 红珠灰蝶 Lycaeides argyrognomon 1 2 1 2 4 1 4 15 P
青海红珠灰蝶 Lycaeides qinghaiensis 1 4 2 1 8 P
琉璃灰蝶属 Celastrina 琉璃灰蝶 Celastrina argiolus 5 1 1 7 W
蓝灰蝶属 Everes 蓝灰蝶 Everes argiades 2 18 5 6 31 W
线灰蝶属 Thecla 线灰蝶 Thecla betulae 1 3 1 5 W
灰蝶属 Lycaena 斑貉灰蝶 Lycaena virgaureae 5 6 11 P
昙梦灰蝶 Thersamonia thersamon 2 2 P
豆灰蝶属 Plebejus 豆灰蝶 Plebejus argus 1 1 W
戈灰蝶属 Glaucopsyche 黎戈灰蝶 Glaucopsyche lycormas 40 3 5 48 P
洒灰蝶属 Satyrium 刺痣洒灰蝶 Satyrium spini 1 4 5 P
弄蝶科
Hesperiidae
链弄蝶属 Heteropterus 链弄蝶 Heteropterus morpheus 1 1 P
花弄蝶属 Pyrgus 花弄蝶 Pyrgus maculatus 1 2 4 7 W
北方花弄蝶 Pyrgus alveus 12 12 W
总计 Total 133 290 973 50 71 270 503 2,290

Fig. 2

Species-abundance curve for the butterflies in Saihanwula Nature Reserve"

Fig. 3

Species-abundance curves for butterfly in different habitats"

Table 2

Diversity indicies of butterfly community in different habitats"

生境
Habitat type
科数
Family
属数
Genera
种数
Number of species
个体数
Individual number
多样性指数
Diversity index
(H°)
均匀度指数
Evenness index
(J)
优势度指数
Dominance index
(D)
物种丰富度指数
Species richness index (R)
I 5 18 19 133 1.835 0.623 0.322 3.681
II 4 16 18 290 1.701 0.589 0.341 2.998
III 5 36 49 973 3.026 0.778 0.085 6.976
IV 3 6 7 50 1.185 0.609 0.462 1.534
V 4 9 10 71 1.500 0.651 0.324 2.111
VI 4 25 31 270 2.732 0.796 0.124 5.359
VII 5 32 45 503 3.222 0.846 0.059 7.073
合计 Total 5 42 63 2,290

Fig.4

Temporal dynamics of the diversity index, evenness index, dominance index, individual number and species number of butterfly community in different habitat"

Fig. 5

Mean monthly temperature (a) and rainfall (b) at Saihanwula Nature Reserve"

Table 3

Correlation (Pearson’s) between climatic factors and butterfly species and individuals"

种类数
Species number
个体数
Individual number
月平均温度
Mean monthly temperature
月降雨量
Mean monthly rainfall
种类数 Species number 1 0.981** 0.885* 0.371
个体数 Individual number 1 0.928* 0.460
月平均温度 Mean monthly temperature 1 0.732
月降雨量 Mean monthly rainfall 1
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