Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 333-345.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017251

• Reviews • Previous Article     Next Article

The origin of crops in the Yangtze River Basin and its relevance for biodiversity

Yao Zhao1, Jiakuan Chen1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Center for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    2 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2017-09-14 Accepted:2018-02-06 Online:2018-09-11
  • Chen Jiakuan E-mail:jkchen@fudan.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

The agricultural civilization that originated in the Yangtze River Basin is an important part of Chinese civilization. Being one of the world-famous crop origin centers, the Yangtze River Basin is rich in biodiversity, and has bred many cultivated plants. This review has collected data of crops that originated in the Yangtze River Basin and information of plant remains found in Neolithic archaeological sites. By summarizing the environmental features and tracking the changes of vegetation since the Holocene in the Yangtze River Basin, we attempt to dissect the dynamics of plant use in this area and investigate the relationship between local cultivated plants and biodiversity. Our results indicate the agricultural civilization in the Yangtze River Basin greatly relied on rice production, and domesticated a large amount of fruit and aquatic vegetable crops, which reflects the adaptation and dependence to local subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests and wetlands. When compared to other basins, the Yangtze River Basin is advantageous in allocation of ecological factors, and the characteristic of domesticated crops shows a typical feature of subtropical humid forest vegetation areas. Studying the natural and human factors related to crop domestication can help us to better understand the origin of agriculture civilization in the Yangtze River Basin. This work not only provides a reference for the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources, but also plays a guiding role in promoting the construction of ecological civilization and sustainable development in the Yangtze River Basin.

Key words: Yangtze River Basin, crop, agricultural civilization, vegetation, climate, biodiversity

Fig.1

Comparisons between the number of four main crop types originated in Yangtze River Basin (gray bar) and those originated in China (white bar)"

Table 1

The domestication time of typical crops originated in the Yangtze River Basin"

驯化时间 Time of domestication (year BP) 参考资料 Reference
水稻 Rice 12,000-7,000 Fuller & Qin, 2010; Huang et al, 2012
荞麦 Buckwheat 7,000-4,000 Konishi et al, 2005
茶 Tea 3,000-2,000 Xia et al, 2017
苎麻 Ramie 4,000-3,000 Zhu et al, 2017
油茶 Oil-tea camellia < 1,000 Cui et al, 2016
油桐 Tung oil tree < 1,500 Zhang et al, 2015
莲 Lotus 3,000-2,000 Yang et al, 2013
菱 Water chestnut 3,000-2,500 Dong & Liu, 2008
柑橘 Orange 4,000-3,000 Dong & Liu, 2008
李 Plum 3,000-2,000 Dong & Liu, 2008
枇杷 Loquat 2,000-1,500 Wang et al, 2017
中国樱桃 Chinese cherry 3,000-2,000 Li et al, 2009
猕猴桃 Kiwifruit < 100 Huang & Liu, 2014

Table 2

A summary of archaeological remains statistics and production mode speculation for major archaeological sites in Yangtze River Basin (According to You, 2009; Da, 2010; Pan, 2011)"

流域
Basin
区域
Region
古文化
遗迹
Archaeological site
年代
Age (year BP)
植物遗存
Plant remains
动物遗存
Animal remains
生产方式
Mode of production
长江中
上游
Middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River
三峡地区、洞庭湖以及江汉平原
Three Gorges region, Dongting Lake and Jianghan Plain
玉蟾岩
Yuchanyan
10,000 稻谷、朴树籽
Rice and nettle tree seed
大量哺乳动物, 鸟类, 水生动物
Mammals, birds, and aquatic animals
采集与渔猎, 水稻种植
Gathering, fishing and hunting; rice cultivation
彭头山
Pengtoushan
9,100-8,200 稻谷、莲子、菱角、薏苡
Rice, lotus seed, water chestnut and Job’s tears
水牛
Buffalo
采集与渔猎, 水稻种植, 家畜饲养
Gathering, fishing and hunting; rice cultivation; livestock breeding
皂市
Zaoshi
8,000-7,000 稻谷
Rice
水牛, 猪, 鹿
Buffalo, boar and deer
原始农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎
Primitive farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting
城背溪
Chengbeixi
8,000-7,000 稻谷、果核
Rice and fruit seeds
水牛, 猪, 鹿
Buffalo, boar and deer
原始农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎
Primitive farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting
大溪
Daxi
6,300-5,300 稻谷
Rice
牛, 猪, 狗以及大量水生动物
Cattle, boar, dog and aquatic animals
水稻种植, 采集与渔猎
Rice cultivation; gathering, hunting and fishing
屈家岭
Qujialing
5,000-4,000 稻谷、粟、
猕猴桃
Rice, millet and kiwifruit
饲养的猪、
狗、羊
Domesticated pig, dog and goat
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 纺织业发达
Rice farming; livestock breeding; fishing and hunting; textiles are developed
流域
Basin
区域
Region
古文化
遗迹
Archaeological site
年代
Age (year BP)
植物遗存
Plant remains
动物遗存
Animal remains
生产方式
Mode of production
鄱阳湖区域
The areas around the Poyang Lake
仙人洞
Xianrendong
12,000 稻谷
Rice
哺乳动物、鱼、螺、蚌
Mammals, fishes, snails and mussels
采集与渔猎
Gathering, fishing and hunting
山背
Shanbei
5,000-4,500 稻谷、粟
Rice and millet
水稻种植
Rice cultivation
筑卫城
Zhuweicheng
5,000-4,500 稻谷、粟
Rice and millet
水稻种植
Rice cultivation
长江下游
Lower reaches of the Yangtze River
杭州湾以及太湖区域
The areas around the Hangzhou Bay and Taihu Lake
河姆渡
Hemudu
7,000-5,000 稻谷、橡子、菱角、芡实、慈姑、桃、南酸枣、葫芦、柿、紫苏
Rice, acorn, water chestnut, gorgon fruit, arrowhead, peach, axillary choerospondias fruit, gourd, persimmon and perilla
狗、猪、鹿、象、犀牛、四不象、猴和鱼类
Dog, boar, deer, elephant, rhino, Milu-deer, monkey and fishes
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 出现纺织业
Rice farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting; textiles occurred
马家浜
Majiabang
7,000-5,000 稻谷、橡子、菱角、桃、葫芦
Rice, acorn, water chestnut, peach and gourd
水牛、鹿、野猪、狐狸、麝、龟、蚌、螺蛳与各种鱼类
Buffalo, deer, boar, fox, musk, turtle, mussel, snail and fishes
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 纺织业发达
Rice farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting; textiles were developed
良渚
Liangzhu
4,000 稻谷、小豆、苎麻、甜瓜子、南酸枣、桃、葫芦、菱角
Rice, legume, ramie, melon, axillary choerospondias fruit, peach, gourd and water chestnut
水牛、鹿、野猪、蚌、螺蛳与各种鱼类
Buffalo, deer, boar, mussel, snail and fishes
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 纺织业发达, 出现丝织品
Rice farming, livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting; textiles were developed; silks occurred

Table 3

The major crops of agricultural civilizations in different basins (Old World)"

谷类
Grains
豆类
Legumes
蔬菜作物
Vegetable crop
经济作物
Economic crop
果树作物
Fruit crop
中国黄河
流域
The Yellow River Basin, China
Setaria italica
Panicum miliaceum
大豆
Glycine max
白菜 Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis
Allium tuberosum
Armeniaca vulgaris
海棠 Malus prunifolia
山楂 Crataegua pinnatifida
中国长江
流域
The Yangtze River Basin, China
Oryza sativa
荞麦 Fagopyrum esculentum
Allium chinense
蕹菜 Ipomoea aquatica
慈姑 Sagittaria trifolia
茭白 Zizania latifolia
苎麻 Boehmeria nivea
Morus alba
Camellia sinensis
柑橘 Citrus reticulata
猕猴桃 Actinidia chinensis
Prunus salicina
Armeniaca mume
两河流域
Mesopotamia
大麦
Hordeum vulgare
小麦
Triticum aestivum
燕麦 Avena sativa
扁豆 Lablab purpureus
豌豆 Pisum
sativum
蚕豆
Vicia faba
洋葱 Allium cepa
大蒜 Allium sativum
芝麻 Sesamum indicum
亚麻 Linum usitatissimum
枣椰 Phoenix dactylifera
油橄榄 Olea europaea
无花果
Ficus carica
尼罗河流域
The Nile Valley
大麦
Hordeum
vulgare
小麦
Triticum
aestivum
蚕豆 Vicia faba 芝麻 Sesamum indicum
亚麻 Linum usitatissimum
无花果
Ficus carica
印度河流域
The India River Basin

Oryza sativa
绿豆
Vigna
radiata
黄瓜 Cucumis sativus
丝瓜 Luffa cylindrical
茄子 Solanum
melongena
菠菜
Spinacia oleracea
木棉 Bombax malabaricum
胡椒 Piper
nigrum
甜瓜
Cucumis melo
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