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    Not only genetic diversity: advances in plant conservation genetics
    Zhengfeng Wang, Xuejun Ge
    Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (4): 330-339.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09127
    Abstract4130)   HTML13)    PDF (350KB)(4025)       Save

    Conservation genetics deals with the genetic factors that affect extinction risk and genetic management regimes required to minimize these risks. In this review, we introduce the advance from the genetic diversity study and the influence of genetic diversity on ecosystem. Until now, most of conservation genetic studies still adopt selective neutral genetic markers, which generate a large amount of valuable information for conservation theory and practice. Two important implications of conservation genetics are introduced: (1) the identification of individuals, genetic unit or species, which is very important for conservation strategy making and efficiency improving; and (2) cryptic bottleneck caused by reproduction and dispersal limitation, which is often neglected in conservation practice. Generally, neutral genetic markers may not provide enough information for the genetic basis of species adaptation. In recent years, along with the development of genomics, more and more studies begin to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation by using adaptive genetic markers. Limited by lack of the functional gene information, most of these studies adopt the genome scanning approach. The development of landscape genetics promotes the understanding of the neglected relationship between genetic diversity and the landscape heterogeneity. In addition to the genetic diversity study itself, some studies found that plant genetic diversity may influence the ecosystem structure and function. This illustrates that genetic diversity in both endangered species and common species can play an important role to ecosystem integrity and sustainability. Finally, we briefly discuss how to integrate the genetic diversity into conservation practice more effectively. And, we also indicate the gap between Chinese and international advanced studies at the area of conservation genetics.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
      
    Studies on plant–pollinator interaction and its significances
    Shuangquan Huang
    Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (6): 569-575.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070294
    Abstract4703)      PDF (215KB)(6182)       Save
    The majority of flowering plants and crops rely in whole or part on animals for pollination. The mutualism between plants and pollinators has attracted ecologists and evolutionists to use this type of interspecific interaction as a model system to study species adaptation and diversification since Charles Darwin. Recent debate on the nature of pollination systems call for studies of this interaction at different levels, ranging from single species to entire communities in a given area. At the species level, detailed studies suggest that floral traits are under selection from mutualists and antagonists as well as the physical environment. In contrast, studies at community-level are rare, but recent analyses indicate considerable spatial and temporal variation in both generalized and specialized pollination systems. This special issue of Biodiversity Science focuses on plant-pollinator interaction, presenting current research status in this area from China. Papers include floral traits and pollinator behaviors addressed by phenotypic manipulation, estimates of pollen removal and receipt, anatomy of flowers, histochemistry analysis and spatial and temporal comparison. The taxa being investigated include wild orchid and cultivated legume, endemic, endangered and invasive species with diverse sexual systems. These thirteen experimental studies and three reviews show the development of pollination biology in China and expose how to facilitate our understanding of the critical ecological proc-esses underlying interspecific interaction in both natural and agricultural ecosystems.
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    Cited: CSCD(37)
      
    Genetic diversity of natural and planted populations of Tsoongiodendron odorum from the Nanling Mountains
    Xueqin Wu,Gangbiao Xu,Yan Liang,Xiangbao Shen
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (1): 71-79.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09138
    Abstract2766)   HTML4)    PDF (371KB)(2457)       Save

    Ex situ conservation, complementary to in situ conservation, plays an important role in preservation and recovery of endangered species. Tsoongiodendron odorum is a relic species that was listed in the Second Grade of the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch) in China. For protection of its genetic diversity, ex situ conservation populations have been established and managed outside of natural habitats in several nature reserves since 1980. However, only dozens of individuals are currently saved from each planted population. To assess the actual protective effectiveness of these planted populations, we detected and compared the genetic diversity of three planted populations from Nanling Mountains with four natural populations using ISSR markers. Overall, we detected 362 total ISSR discernible bands with 16 ISSR primers, of which 301 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands (P) was 83.2%. At the population level, the percent of polymorphic bands ranged from 37.9% to 62.2%, with an average value of 53.1%. This result showed that T. odorum had high genetic diversity both at population and species levels. However, the percentage of polymorphic bands and Shannon information index (I) of ex situ conservation populations (66.6% and 0.2990) were much lower than those of natural populations (80.9% and 0.3629). We deduced that there was a narrow genetic base for plantations of T. odorum. Population structure analysis revealed that three planted populations could be collected from the same wild population (i.e., YK population). The genetic variation of four natural populations (GST=0.2495) showed that there was significant isolation among populations, which would limit gene flow and population differentiation among populations. We present suggestions on regulating seed collection from different natural habitats to establish planted populations and strengthening research on the reproductive biology of T. odorum.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
      
    Unorthodox reflections on molecular ecology research in China
    Dexing Zhang
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (5): 559-569.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015223
    Abstract1737)   HTML22)    PDF (443KB)(2661)       Save

    Molecular ecology is an integrated scientific discipline that applies evolutionary theory to resolve various macroscopic biology questions. After approximately a half-century of development, it has become a well-established and active research field. It has not only penetrated numerous study areas of macroscopic biology, but also successfully bridged multiple disciplines such as ecology, physiology, geoscience and evolutionary biology. The research scope of molecular ecology ranges from developing the basic theories and methodologies, to uncovering and describing fundamental modes and patterns, to exploring processes and mechanisms, to excising research outcomes in practical applications such as conservation or pest control. The rising of molecular ecology has transformed macroscopic biology research, making it possible to leap into an epoch where systematical investigations on specific or general mechanisms are possible from joint genetic, ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Molecular ecology has already entered into the omic era, making many research dreams readily realisable. The omic era also brings challenges, of which the ones with the most profound influence on molecular ecology would be breakthroughs in basic evolutionary theories, such as theories of genetic variation, population differentiation, the evolutionary roles of epigenetic modification and variation, etc. Predictably, this will trigger an unprecedented revolution in biology, thus affecting undoubtedly all branches of ecology and even forging some new subdisciplines such as ecological epigenomics. For Chinese scientists, the opening of the omic era of molecular ecology has provided a rare and great opportunity for developing and establishing new methodologies, hypotheses and theories in macroscopic biology. Thus far, we have made no significant contributions. Nevertheless, theoretical, conceptual, and methodological research are the weakest areas of molecular ecology studies in China. Both research funding organizations and scientists should be clearly aware of the trends of research development and the challenges facing us; new funding management policies should be amended, and the proper research attitude and posture re-established.

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    Conservation of wild rice genetic resources in China and their utilization in breeding
    FAN Shu-Guo, ZHANG Zai-Jun, LIU Lin, LIU Hong-Xian, LIANG Cheng-Ye
    Biodiv Sci    2000, 08 (2): 198-207.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000028
    Abstract3545)      PDF (304KB)(3084)       Save
    Three species of wild rice , i.e. ,Oryza rufipogon , Oryza of ficinalis and Oryza meyeriana , were found in China , and had been listed as the national second-grade protected plants ( gradually endangered species) of China. It was investigated that Chinese wild rice have been in imminent danger due to rapid loss of their natural community. Oryza rufipogon is in most imminent danger , while Oryza officinalis and Oryza meyeriana are less imminent . The main cause is economic activities which led to the loss of habitat , continuous deterioration of habitat quality , sustained reduction of habitat and invasion of exotic species. At present , some measures have been taken to protect Chinese wild rice , such as in situ conservation (on-site maintenance) and ex situ conservation (off-site maintenance) . Ex situ conservation includes seed-preserved genebank ,whole plant-preserved field genebank and callus-conserved cryopreservation. Chinese wild rice species possess many excellent characteristics , such as extreme cold-tolerance , high resistance to diseases and pests , good quality and high content of protein , senescence-tolerance of functional leaves , strong regenerating capability , good quality of lush growth , good growing dominance , which have been widely used in conventional rice breeding and hybrid rice breeding , and huge social and economic benefits have been achieved. Rapid progress has been made in biotechnology of Chinese wild rice , especially in anther culture , protoplast culture , somatic cell hybridization and gene transfer. It can be expected that Chinese wild rice resources will play more and more important role in rice breeding.
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    Cited: CSCD(15)
      
    Advances in methods for measuring patterns of endemic plant diversity
    Jihong Huang,Jinlong Zhang,Yong Yang,Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (1): 99-110.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12175
    Abstract3489)   HTML27)    PDF (445KB)(3598)       Save

    Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species β-diversity, and phylogenetic β-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.

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    Cited: CSCD(11)
      
    DNA barcode: from species to biome
    Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 279-280.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015152
    Abstract1504)   HTML8)    PDF (742KB)(2973)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
      
    How did biodiversity come about?
    Hongzhi Kong
    Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (2): 117-118.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.02091
    Abstract2726)   HTML16)    PDF (224KB)(3139)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    Progress of microbial species diversity research in China
    Liangdong Guo
    Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (5): 572-580.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10129
    Abstract3660)   HTML20)    PDF (388KB)(5809)       Save

    Microbes with rich species and genetic diversity are widely distributed throughout various habitats in the world. China possesses a variety of climate zones, geographic environments, and complex ecosystems, which play a large role shaping the complex biodiversity of this country. Microbial diversity has been widely studied and well documented by Chinese scientists. For example, a total of ca. 14,700 eukaryotic microbe species have been recorded, including ca. 14,060 fungi, ca. 300 oomycetes, and ca. 340 slime molds. Within the Fungi, there have been 473 medicinal fungal species and 966 edible fungal taxa recorded. However, recent studies have documented much high species diversity of prokaryotic microbes using molecular techniques, which have greatly promoted the study level of microbial diversity in China. This review paper summarizes recent research progress of microbial (i.e., archaea, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and slime molds) diversity in China based on traditional and molecular techniques.

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    Cited: CSCD(30)
      
    Influences of herbicide application on weed microevolution and diversity
    Guo Shuiliang, Zhao Tieqiao
    Biodiv Sci    1997, 05 (4): 301-306.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1997052
    Abstract3409)      PDF (176KB)(2678)       Save
    The mechanisms of herbicides on weed genetic differentiation and the factors relevant to the process were analysed. The characteristics of field weed diversity  and the theoretical values of the study on weed genetics and diversity under the influences of herbicides were discussed in this paper.
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    Cited: CSCD(10)
      
    Exploring the mechanism of species endangerment and conservation strategy in the Yangtze River drainage
    Zhigang Jiang., Song Ge
    Biodiv Sci    2005, 13 (5): 367-375.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050192
    Abstract5496)      PDF (307KB)(4353)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(11)
      
    Diversity and conservation of the Triticeae genetic resources
    Lu Baorong
    Biodiv Sci    1995, 03 (2): 63-68.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1995010
    Abstract3933)      PDF (444KB)(2610)       Save
    The tribe Triticeae Dumort. in the grass family (Poaceae) contains three of the world most important cere-al crops, namely, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ), barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ), and rye (Secale cereale L. ), as well as many economically valuable forage grasses. Because the tribe Triticeae comprises a greatnumber of species, covers a remarkably wide disribution area in the world, and inhabits various ecologicalenvironments, tremendous morphological and genetic variations are found between and within species inthis tribe. As a vast reservoir of genetic resources, species in the Triticeae have a great potential for the im-provement of wheat, barley, and rye varieties in the plant breeding programmes through transferring use-ful genes from wild to cultivated species. However, the present knowledge and investigation of biodiversityin the Triticeae is considerably insufficient, which largely affects the appropriate utilization of the geneticresources in the tribe. Nowadays, the change of the global environments makes some species of Triticeae inan endangered state. Therefore , it is very important and urgent to strengthen the further investigation ofthe genetic diversity in the Triticeae and to have effective strategy to the conservation of this vast geneticreservoir.
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    The roles of ecological genetics in biodiversity conservation
    HUANG Rui-Fu
    Biodiv Sci    2000, 08 (1): 13-16.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000002
    Abstract3294)      PDF (91KB)(2790)       Save
    In the present paper , some problems were discussed on the roles of ecological genetics in biodiversity conservation. First of all , the nature of ecological genetics was described. Ecological genetics represents a union of population ecology and population genetics and it studies on evolution at population level. Second , the basic content of ecological genetics was introduced to show that it is one of the basic knowledgements in the study and protection of biodiversity. Last , two examples were given to illustrate the application of ecological genetics in biodiversity conservation.
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    Prospects for plant DNA barcoding
    Dezhu Li, Chunxia Zeng
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 297-298.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015135
    Abstract1529)   HTML12)    PDF (503KB)(3616)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
      
    Progress of biological invasions research in China over the last decade
    Ruiting Ju, Hui Li, Chengjen Shih, Bo Li
    Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (5): 581-611.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.31148
    Abstract5026)   HTML65)    PDF (737KB)(8435)       Save

    As one of the five major global environmental problems, invasive species have posed serious threats to native ecosystems, public health, and regional economies. Although much progress has been made in the field of biological invasions research in China over the last decade, there are still large knowledge gaps. This paper reviews progress in the field of biological invasions research since 2000 as it relates to China, covering the diversity, colonization and immigration patterns of invasive species, mechanisms and ecological effects of biological invasions, and management and control of invasive species. In China, 529 invasive alien species have been identified, which originated primarily from South and North America, and the major taxa included terrestrial plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and microorganisms. We found a higher prevalence of invasive species in the eastern and southern provinces, compared to the western and northern provinces in China. This pattern is likely due to the differences in the level of economic development and environmental suitability between the two regions. Moreover, with further economic development, China may face more serious biological invasions in the future. These invasions of alien species are largely the combined results of the interactions between the intrinsic traits of these species along with resource opportunities and disturbances by human beings. Many mechanisms are responsible for successful invasions of alien species, but phenotypic plasticity, adaptive evolution, enemy release, interspecific mutualism or commensalism, and new allelochemicals may be primary causative factors. Biological invasions in China have caused serious impacts on native ecosystems, including biodiversity and ecosystem services, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, threats to agricultural and forestry production, traffic and shipping, environmental safety, and public facilities. China has also made progress in the detection and monitoring of invasive species, risk analysis, biological control, radical elimination, and ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. We suggest several issues that need to be addressed in invasive species research in the future, including territory-wide inventories, evolutionary ecology and genomics, direct and indirect ecosystem-level consequences, interactions between major components of global change and biological invasions, and management and control technologies.

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    Cited: CSCD(83)
      
    Advances in plant conservation genetics
    LI Ang, GE Song
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (1): 61-71.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002009
    Abstract4476)      PDF (451KB)(3232)       Save
    Conservation genetics is a new field of research focusing on the studies and practices of biodiversity conservation based on the principles and techniques of population genetics. During the past decades, genetic studies have made increasingly great contributions to biodiversity conservation in theory and practice. In this paper, we briefly introduce the concept and history of conservation genetics, and highlight progress in plant conservation genetics. Four major aspects of conservation genetics in plants are addressed, including plant phylogenetic reconstruction and identification of conservation units, the relationship between genetic diversity and species fitness, population genetic structure and conservation strategies, as well as the identification and utilization of plant genetic resources. In addition, the great importance of genetic studies in plant conservation is discussed.
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    Cited: CSCD(59)
      
    Evolutionary principle and conservation strategies of biodiversity
    Cao Jiashu, Miao Ying
    Biodiv Sci    1997, 05 (3): 220-223.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1997037
    Abstract4193)      PDF (105KB)(3701)       Save
    The present paper deals with evolutionary principle and conservation strategies of biodiversity. Some unsatisfactory explanation of biodiversity in traditional evolutionary theroy was pointed. A new explanation according to the organic adaptive evolutionary theroy was discussed. The expression of biodiversity,
    Bd=T[(Gc-m+MEc-(Nt+Ap+Hf)]dt,
    (Bd—biodiversity; Gc—genetic material combinations; m—reduced value of genetic material conbinations for mutation; M—increased value of genetic material combinations; Ec—environmental element conbinations; Nt—natural thinning; Ap—artificial prune; Hf—hunted for food) was advanced first in this paper. Some principles of conservation strategies of biodiversity were given using its expression.
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    Cited: CSCD(5)
      
    Diversity of rice genetic resources and its utilization and conservation
    LU Bao-Rong
    Biodiv Sci    1998, 06 (1): 63-72.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1998011
    Abstract3496)      PDF (173KB)(3248)       Save
    The widespread adoption of improved high-yield rice varieties , which in a large scale replaced traditional and local rice varieties , has resulted in a great genetic erosion of the cultivated rice genepool. This process has narrowed genetic background of the cultivated rice. As a result , modern rice varieties become vulnerable and can not stand the attack of new disease and insect pests , and the unfavorable changes of environments. Meanwhile , the long2term use of chemical pesticides and herbicides significantly deteriorated agricultural ecosystem. In order to change this vicious cycle of the rice ecosystem , it is very important and necessary to explore and utilize the genetic biodiversity in the rice genepool to broaden the genetic background of the cultivated rice. The rice genepool encompasses varieties of Asia rice and African rice , weedy rice , wild species of rice in the genus Oryz a , and species in the related genera of the tribe Oryzeae. These are the essential germplasm resources for the further improvement of cultivated rices. However , due to the change of agricultural patterns , rapid development of social economy , industrialization and urbanization , biodiversity of the rice genepool , including wild species of rice , is under threat . Many populations of wild Oryz a species have been extinct from their original sites or are diminishing. Therefore , it is absolutely necessary and essential to strategically safeguard and conserve biodiversity of the rice genepool and to effectively utilize the elite rice germplasm resources in rice breeding programs. This is the only way to guarantee the long2term and sustainable production of rice varieties.
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    Cited: CSCD(41)
      
    DNA barcodes, speciation and taxonomy in plants
    Jianquan Liu
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 283-285.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015066
    Abstract1811)   HTML11)    PDF (413KB)(2532)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
      
    Application of DNA barcoding in phylofloristics study
    Xuejun Ge
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 295-296.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015064
    Abstract1501)   HTML11)    PDF (517KB)(2942)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(12)
      
    Application of DNA barcoding to conservation of highly valued, rare and endangered species
    Shiliang Zhou, Chao Xu, Wenpan Dong, Tao Cheng
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 288-290.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015090
    Abstract1373)   HTML10)    PDF (599KB)(2301)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
      
    Applications of DNA barcoding in conservation biogeography
    Jihong Huang, Jianhua Huang
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 293-294.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015124
    Abstract1420)   HTML5)    PDF (487KB)(2127)       Save
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    Applications of DNA barcoding in biodiversity inventory and assessment
    Lianming Gao
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 286-287.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015070
    Abstract1477)   HTML5)    PDF (517KB)(2700)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(6)
      
    Allozymic genetic diversity in Manglietia patungensis, an endangered species, and its conservation strategies
    Jingsheng He, Zuozhou Li, Hongwen Huang
    Biodiv Sci    DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.040104
    Abstract3750)      PDF (736KB)(2380)       Save
      
    The spatial pattern of species diversity and its forming mechanism
    Huang Jianhui
    Biodiv Sci    1994, 02 (2): 103-107.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1994019
    Abstract4536)      PDF (436KB)(3033)       Save
    Among several paterns of species diversity variations, perhaps the most widely recognized one is the increasethat occurs from the poles to the tropics. A number of explanations have been put forward for this generallatitudinal trend in species diversity. Among these, it seems that the ESA hypothesis is more reasoanable.Based on the explanations advanced before, the author has proposed his own idea, that is the factors, whichinflunce the distribution of species, can be divided into two categories, one is environmental, another is biological, and the environmental factor is primary, the biological one is secondary.
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    Historical hypothesis in explaining spatial patterns of species richness
    Zhiyao Tang, Zhiheng Wang, Jingyun Fang
    Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (6): 635-643.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09143
    Abstract4401)   HTML56)    PDF (541KB)(6008)       Save

    Spatial patterns of biodiversity are results of contemporary climate, disturbance, and geological history. In this paper, we review the historical hypothesis which explains historical importance in shaping biodiversity patterns, focusing on the recent development in its studies on mechanisms, parameter selection, and relative importance of historical factors versus contemporary climate. Based on literature research, we conclude that, (1) the historical events significantly affect the present patterns of biodiversity, and that these effects are masked by the strong collinearity between historical processes and contemporary climate; (2) historical processes are more significant in influencing distributional patterns of species with small ranges (or endemic species) than those of wide-spread species; (3) measurement of historical processes is a challenge in testing historical hypothesis, as the surrogates currently used are strongly collinear with contemporary climates. Phylogenetic analysis may be help assess the importance of historical hypothesis in controlling spatial patterns of biodiversity.

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    Cited: CSCD(19)
      
    Local and regional processes control species richness of plant communities: the species pool hypothesis
    Jingyun Fang, Xiangping Wang, Zhiyao Tang
    Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (6): 605-612.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09141
    Abstract4827)   HTML38)    PDF (716KB)(5526)       Save

    Exploring the mechanisms underlying community species richness is a key issue in ecology and conservation biology, and many hypotheses based on small-scale, local processes have traditionally been used as explanations. The species pool hypothesis developed by Zobel et al. suggests that the variation in community species richness is not only associated with contemporary environmental factors and ecological processes (e.g. competition and predation), but also limited by the regional species pool. The regional species pool is the set of species in a certain region that are capable of coexisting in a target community, which is shaped by historical (e.g. glaciation and geological age) and regional processes (e.g. speciation, immigration, dispersion, and extinction). The species pool hypothesis suggests that the larger the area of a habitat type and the greater its geological age, the greater the opportunity for speciation and hence the larger the number of available species adapted to that particular habitat, which will in turn lead to higher community diversity. The species pool is generally studied at two spatial scales: the regional and the actual scales. While the regional species pool is primarily determined by biogeographic processes, the actual species pool (species present in the target community) is determined by both ecological processes (e.g. competition) and the regional pool. In this review, we introduce and discuss the concepts relating to, and evidence for the species pool hypothesis, together with methods for estimating the species pool.

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    Cited: CSCD(32)
      
    Crop genetic resources and their protection in China
    Biodiv Sci    1993, 01 (1): 35-39.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1993009
    Abstract2899)      PDF (302KB)(2092)       Save
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    Molecular phylogenetics and biodiversity conservation
    WANG Wen
    Biodiv Sci    1998, 06 (2): 138-142.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1998020
    Abstract3849)      PDF (146KB)(3571)       Save
    In recent years , it has been emphasized that the principles and methods of molecular phylogenetics should have potential and practical value in biodiversity conservation , especially in species conservation. It is a critical issue and the first step as well to identify those units which have evolutionary significance from different populations of a species concerned in species conservation. Phylogenetic relationships among those populations could shed valuable light on this issue. In addition , the data from molecular phylogenetic study are also helpful for us to understand the status and process of populations.
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    Cited: CSCD(5)
      
    Species and species diversity
    ZHOU Hong-Zhang
    Biodiv Sci    2000, 08 (2): 215-226.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000030
    Abstract4148)      PDF (281KB)(3620)       Save
    This paper discussed the scientific concept of species and the biological nature of species as a natural group. It is high diversity of species that makes it impossible to produce general , applicable and theoretically significant species concepts for all the organisms existing or once existed on the earth. Species communities of composition diversity should have characters which correspond with different biological aspects of individual species , i. e. species diversity should acturally be the biological diversity of species. There are many different methods to measure the degree of species diversity , but the total number of species should be the most explicit and direct one. A lot of studies in the last decade tried to value how many species exist in the world. The origin of species diversity is through speciation , and its loss through species extinction. The model and mechanism of speciation and extinction and the possible causes were briefly discussed. The author strongly argues that there exists a close relationship between biogeographic analysis and species diversity researches. Pattern identification and component analysis on fauna and flora should be an important part of species diversity researches on a relatively large scale.
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    Cited: CSCD(39)
      
    DNA barcoding of life: a classification of uses according to function and scale after ten years of development
    Nancai Pei,Bufeng Chen
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (5): 616-627.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12059
    Abstract3097)   HTML29)    PDF (533KB)(4313)       Save

    DNA barcoding technology provides molecular information, standard dataset platforms, and universal technical regulations for modern biological research. We briefly review the history of DNA barcoding between 2003 and 2012, and classify DNA barcoding into three types of biological function: basic function (e.g., storing data, and identifying species), extending function (e.g., building phylogenies, serving specific subjects, and compiling biological atlas) and potential function (e.g., revealing cryptic species). We sort DNA barcoding studies at three levels: clade scale (e.g., familial and/or generic taxa), community scale (e.g., biotic communities in nature reserves and permanent forest dynamics plots), and regional scale (e.g., biodiversity hotpots). We further list ten major research programs proposed by the International Barcode of Life, which are related to DNA barcoding approaches from the prospective of systematics and taxonomy, biodiversity conservation, evolutionary ecology and phylogenetics, and the construction of digital platforms. We appreciate the huge capability of barcoding technology in the field of biological sciences, and also realize the challenges of DNA barcoding utilizations in multidisciplinary studies and the essential to add more tests before the large-scale applications.

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    Cited: CSCD(17)
      
    Differentiation of the StY genomes in Elymus species as referred by meiotic pairing in interspecific hybrids and its evolutionary significance
    LU Bao-Rong, Bjφrn Salomon
    Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (2): 213-226.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004026
    Abstract3219)      PDF (2455KB)(2527)       Save
    Hybridization-differentiation is a major pathway of speciation and the active force of plant evolution, including homoploid speciation without change of chromosome numbers. Effective isolation between parental species and their hybrid derivatives plays an essential role in homoploid speciation for stabilizing a newly formed species. Studies of isolation mechanisms will facilitate our understanding of the speciation process. The genus Elymus of Triticeae (Poaceae) includes ca. 150 polyploid species with different genomes, viz. the StH, StY, StHY, StPY, and StWY from different origins, providing an ideal group for studying mechanisms of polyploid and homoploid speciation. There are about 30 tetraploid species containing the StY genomes distributed in temperate Asia and the eastern margin of Europe. In order to study genomic relationships of the StY Elymus species, samples representing 26 species collected from Western through Eastern Asia were extensively hybridized with each other. Meiotic pairing at metaphaseI of the intra- and interspecific hybrids was analyzed, which revealed a significant differentiation pattern in homology of the StY genomes among Elymus species studied. Species from the same regions, e.g. within eastern or western Asia, shared the StY genomes with a relatively low level of differentiation, but species from different regions, e.g. between eastern and western Asia, shared substantially differentiated StY genomes. Species from Central Asia contained intermediately differentiated StY genomes compared with those from western and eastern Asia. The discovery of geographical differentiation of the StY genomes in tetraploid Elymus species has significance for study of evolutionary processes and mechanisms of homoploid speciation in Elymus. In addition to other wellrecognized factors responsible for the isolation between parental species and their hybrid derivatives during the hybridizationdifferentiation process (such as temporal, spatial, genic, and ecological isolation), the authors believe that meiotic irregularity caused by genomic differentiation between species also provides an important mechanism for homoploid speciation.
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    The genetic diversity and conservation of Sinocalycanthus chinensis
    ZHOU Shi-Liang, YE Wen-Guo
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002001
    Abstract4786)      PDF (226KB)(3276)       Save
    Sinocalycanthus chinensis is the only representative in the genus Sinocalycanthus and an endangered species restricted in small areas of Lin′an City and Tiantai County, Zhejiang Province. Currently only two natural populations remain: the larger one is found in Lin′an City, consisting of seven subpopulations with nearly 1731 990 individuals in total; the smaller one is located at Tiantai County where 2000 individuals exist. The genetic diversity of the two natural populations and one recently introduced population at Tianmushan Natural Reserve, Lin′an City, Zhejiang Province, was assessed using allozyme markers. A population of Chimonanthus zhejiangensis from Hangzhou Botanical Gardens, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, was included in this study for the purpose of comparison. The genetic diversity of S. chinensis turned out to be extremely low. Only five of 23 loci from 14 enzymes assayed were polymorphic. The polymorphism was largely due to alternative fixation of alleles on Mdh-4, Pgd-3 and Sod-1, and two mutations (Gpi-1 and Gpi-2) on one individual out of 553 in total. At species level the mean number of alleles per locus ( A ) was 1.2, the percentage of polymorphic loci ( P ) was 21.7%, and the observed heterozygosity ( Ho ) was 0.010. At population level the estimates were A =1.0~1.1, P =0~13.0%, and Ho =0~0.014. In contrast, the estimates for C. zhejiangensis were much higher ( A=1.5, P=39.1%, Ho =0.071) though there were only 16 individuals tested. Since no genetic variation was detected in the introduced population of S. chinensis at Tianmushan Natural Reserve, the introduction of the plant should not be considered as a success of ex situ conservation of the endangered species. Moreover, the range of subpopulations within Longtangshan National Natural Reserve is diminishing due to the growth of evergreen forests. So far no measures have been taken to stop this subpopulation from shrinking because of lack of knowledge of ecology and biology of the plant. This study exemplifies that we are unable to conduct in situ conservation and to practise ex situ conservation properly if we have no knowledge of the biology of the species we intend to conserve.
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    Cited: CSCD(38)
      
    Identifying populations for priority conservation of important species
    CHEN Xiao-Yong, LU Hui-Ping, SHEN Lang, LI Yuan-Yuan
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (3): 332-338.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002046
    Abstract4245)      PDF (241KB)(3577)       Save
    Due to differences in the significance of populations, limits in funds for species conservation and conflict between conservation and economic development, deciding what and where to conserve is an essential step in managing important species, especially endangered species and wild relatives of crops and domesticated animals. There are three approaches to identifying populations for priority conservation of important species, including genetic variation-based, genetic distinctiveness-based and genetic contribution based. The genetic variation based approach chooses populations with high genetic variation, especially allelic diversity, for priority conservation. This approach does not consider genetic distinctiveness. Some distinctive alleles in populations with low genetic variation may not receive effective conservation based on this approach. In contrast, the distinctiveness-based approach, such as those based on evolutionarily significant units, chooses distinct populations for priority conservation. The genetic contribution based approach, a synthesis considering genetic variation and distinctiveness, is the most appropriate approach in determining which populations need priority conservation. We propose that this work should be considered urgent in China for some endangered or rare species.
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    Cited: CSCD(14)
      
    How does species diversity change? Spatio-temporal patterns and scales
    ZHOU Hong-Zhang, YU Xiao-Dong, LUO Tian-Hong, HE Jun-Jian
    Biodiv Sci    2000, 08 (3): 325-336.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000047
    Abstract4476)      PDF (333KB)(5146)       Save
    It is an important part of biodiversity research to discover the patterns of species diversity over space and time in different scales and to find the mechanisms that control thepattern forming. These are also considered to be the main goals of studies on species diversity , which lay special emphasis on how the number of species changes and how great the species diverse with different biological attributes. This paper discusses at first the spatial patterns of species diversity , especially the modes of“species-area”from different aspects. The factors like latitudinal changes and habitat heterogeneity are considered to see how they affect the pattern forming of species diversity. Secondly , the paper′s discussion is concentrated on the patterns of species diversity over time. In the long- term evolution of all organisms , the process of total species- diversity increase would be interrupted by a series of mass extinctions that occur periodically. The recent progresses show that the patterns of species diversity between any two mass extinctions would be determined by the initial status immediately after the former mass extinction. On short- time scales , e.g. ecological succession in a community , circannual rhythms and seasonality , some special patterns have been found in species- diversity changes. In addition , the results of some researches demonstrated that more species tended to live on a host if they had coevolved for a longer time.
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    Impacts of natural hybridization and introgression on biological invasion of plant species
    Bao-Rong Lu, Hui Xia, Wei Wang, Xiao Yang
    Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (6): 577-589.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.577
    Abstract3909)   HTML15)    PDF (412KB)(3860)       Save

    Biological invasions have caused tremendous ecological and socio-economic damages worldwide. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for their effective management. Biological invasion is a process of adaptive evolution in which hybridization and introgression play an important role in promoting invasive species by changing their invasiveness. Therefore, understanding how the genetic mechanisms of hybridization and introgression influence biological invasion will facilitate effective control of invasive species. The escape of transgenes with special functions into populations of wild relatives through hybridization and introgression may change the invasiveness and weediness of the wild relatives, causing undesired environmental problems. This paper introduces the role of hybridization and introgression in adaptive evolution and speciation, and discusses how an alien species can change its adaptability, competitive ability, and invasiveness in new habitats through introgressive hybridization. Hybridization and introgression can cause polyploid and homoploid evolution of plant species, thereby influencing the fitness of new species and promoting the formation of an invasive species in new habitats. At the same time, with the rapid development of transgenic technologies, transgenic crops are being extensively released into the environment for commercial production. Biological invasion is a complicated evolutionary and ecological process, and future research should investigate the roles of hybridization and introgression in biological invasions in the context of the myriad factors that influence the process.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
      
    Impacts of alien plant invasions on biodiversity and evolutionary responses of native species
    Yanbao Lei, Haifeng Xiao, Yulong Feng
    Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (6): 622-630.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.622
    Abstract4550)   HTML32)    PDF (297KB)(5584)       Save

    The impacts of invasive alien species on the genetic diversity and evolutionary responses of native species are poorly understood. Accumulating evidence shows that invasive plant species can lead to genetic erosion of natives directly through hybridization and gene infiltration, or even affect genetic diversity of natives through creation of new “genotypes”. Exotic species can also alter genetic diversity of natives indirectly through habitat fragmentation and modification, processes which influence gene flow within and among populations and result in inbreeding and genetic drift. On the other hand, some studies show that native species can respond evolutionarily to invasive plants, thereby reducing or eliminating invasive impacts. While interacting with invasive species, native species in both above- and below-ground ecosystems exhibit a series of evolutionary events such as adaptation, speciation or extinction. To more comprehensively evaluate the ecological impacts of biological invasions and the adaptive potential of natives, here we review the impacts of invasive plants on biological (genetic) diversity of native species, and the evolutionary responses of natives. We also discuss relationships between the genetic and evolutionary responses of natives and the success of invasive plants, and propose topics for further research.

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    Cited: CSCD(38)
      
    Plant DNA barcodes: implications for phylogenetics
    Xiaoguo Xiang, Wei Wang
    Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 281-282.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015065
    Abstract1521)   HTML8)    PDF (519KB)(2698)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    Relationship between animals and plant regeneration by seed Ⅰ. Object, methods and significance
    LI Hong-Jun, ZHANG Zhi-Bin
    Biodiv Sci    2000, 08 (4): 405-412.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000057
    Abstract4129)      PDF (278KB)(3424)       Save
    Most plants regenerate by seed bank. Animal activities affect seed fate from their departure from the parent plants to the establishment of seedlings. Animals play dual roles in plant regeneration , including consuming seeds and dispersing seeds to suitable sites for seedling recruitment . These two roles are trade-off . Studying the relationship between plant regeneration and animals will help to understand population dynamics , coevolution between animals and plants , community succession , the role of animals in ecosystem function and biodiversity. In recent studies , oaks and pines have been extensively studied species. It is well known that rodents and birds are the chief predators and dispersers for large seeds.
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    Cited: CSCD(18)
      
    The phylogenetic signal of functional traits and their effects on community structure in an evergreen broad-leaved forest
    Ke Cao,Mide Rao,Jianping Yu,Xiaojuan Liu,Xiangcheng Mi,Jianhua Chen
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (5): 564-571.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08068
    Abstract3090)   HTML41)    PDF (352KB)(2928)       Save

    The phylogenetic conservatism of plant functional traits and its association with community structure are important topics in ecological research. Plant functional traits are simultaneously affected by their evolutionary background, local habitat conditions and large-scale climate. In this study we asked whether functional traits have a significant phylogenetic signal and significantly affect species abundance in a community. For this objective, we used data from a 24 ha Gutianshan forest plot, which included species abundance and six functional traits of 156 woody species: leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, leaf area, wood density, specific leaf area and seed mass. We found that all functional traits showed significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that all functional traits are significantly affected by their evolutionary history. We also found that species abundance was correlated with leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, leaf area, woody density and specific leaf area except seed mass, suggesting that resource acquisition significantly affects species abundance distribution in a community, and that these functional traits impact community structure in different ways.

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    Cited: CSCD(21)