Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (12): 1257-1266.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016366

• Special Feature: Biological Invasion • Previous Article     Next Article

Comparison of growth, photosynthesis and phenotypic plasticity between invasive and native Bidens species under different light and water conditions

Yumei Pan, Saichun Tang*(), Chunqiang Wei, Xiangqin Li   

  1. Guangxi Key Laboratory of Functional Phytochemicals Research and Utilization, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
  • Received:2016-12-26 Accepted:2017-07-01 Online:2017-12-10
  • Tang Saichun

To explore the traits related to the invasiveness of exotic Bidens species in China, we compared the morphology, growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, and phenotypic plasticity of two invasive Bidens species (B. pilosa and B. frondosa) with two native congeners (B. biternata and B. tripartita) under different light and water conditions in a common garden. The results showed that the invasive and native species displayed similar plant heights and total biomass under unfavorable conditions (i.e. low light and low water treatment). However, under favorable light and water conditions (i.e. high light and high water treatment), the invasive species showed significantly greater plant height and total biomass than the native congeners. Furthermore, in high light treatments, the relative growth rate of the invasive species was higher than that of the native species. The invasive species allocated more resources to root biomass at high light levels compared to low light levels, while they allocated more resources to leaf biomass at low light levels compared to high light levels. Specific leaf area of the invasive species was greater than that of the native congeners under low light conditions. These traits may enhance the abilities of invasive species to capture and utilize resources, enabling them to withstand adverse environmental conditions or to respond more positively to favorable conditions. The phenotypic plasticity indices of invasive and native species for morphology, growth, and photosynthetic parameters were low for water availability and high for light intensity. However, for most variables, invasive species showed a higher phenotypic plasticity index than native congeners, and this may contribute to their invasion success. In addition, there were no significant differences for photosynthetic parameters between invasive and native Bidens species under any treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that morphology, growth, biomass allocation, and phenotypic plasticity may play more important roles than photosynthetic parameters in the success of invasive Bidens species.

Key words: Bidens, invasive species, native species, growth traits, photosynthetic characteristics, phenotypic plasticity

Table 1

Effects of light, water, origin and their interactions on morphology, growth and photosynthetic parameters of invasive and native Bidens species (F-values)"

变量 Variables 光照 Light
(L) (df = 1)
水分 Water
(W) (df = 1)
来源 Origin
(O) (df = 1)
物种(来源) Species
(origin) (df = 2)
L × W
(df = 1)
L × O
(df = 1)
W × O
(df = 1)
L × W × O
(df = 1)
株高 Plant height 194.98*** 39.31*** 0.39 30.70*** 50.92*** 8.11** 1.24 5.96*
比叶面积 SLA 467.90*** 11.36** 15.32 0.78 6.36* 7.38* 0.08 0.08
总生物量 Total biomass 494.65*** 76.66*** 0.544 25.33*** 73.15*** 11.2** 3.45 3.7
相对生长速率 RGR 1,747.95*** 29.13*** 0.89 101.44*** 33.78*** 5.70* 3.37 1.02
根生物量比 RMR 46.92*** 0.03 0.09 9.07*** 3.16 15.43*** 0.04 0.001
茎生物量比 SMR 0.101 9.09** 4.27 2.44 1.30 11.05** 0.06 0.03
叶生物量比 LMR 5.53* 8.07** 5.13 1.49 3.19 22.38*** 0.02 0.03
光补偿点 LCP 220.98*** 0.01 0.01 2.17 0.91 0.57 0.10 0.005
光饱和点 LSP 117.78*** 0.06 0.57 0.61 0.05 0.60 0.73 0.03
最大净光合速率 Amax 132.73*** 0.08 0.16 0.81 0.60 0.64 0.44 0.10
暗呼吸速率 Rday 119.90*** 0.064 0.036 3.45* 0.002 0.054 0.052 0.279

Fig. 1

Morphology, growth and biomass allocation characteristics of the invasive and native Bidens species under different light and water conditions (means ± SE). Different capital and small letters indicate significant differences among treatments for the same species and differences between invasive and native species at the same treatment, respectively (P < 0.05). HLHW, High light and high water; HLLW, High light and low water; LLHW, Low light and high water; LLLW, Low light and low water; SLA, Specific leaf area; RGR, Relative growth rate; RMR, Root mass ratio; SMR, Stem mass ratio; LMR, Leaf mass ratio."

Fig. 2

Photosynthetic parameters of the invasive and native Bidens species under different light and water conditions (means ± SE). Different capital and small letters indicate significant differences among treatments for the same species and differences between invasive and native species at the same treatment, respectively (P < 0.05). HLHW, High light and high water; HLLW, High light and low water; LLHW, Low light and high water; LLLW, Low light and low water; LCP, Light compensation point; LSP, Light saturation point; Amax, Maximum net photosynthetic rate; Rday, Dark respiration rate."

Table 2

Phenotypic plasticity indices for the variables of invasive and native Bidens species to light and/or water conditions"

变量 Variables 入侵种 Invasive species 本地种 Native species
光照 Light 水分 Water 光照 Light 水分 Water
High water
Low water
High light
Low light
High water
Low water
High light
Low light
株高 Plant height 0.65 0.302 0.41 0.15 0.5 0.298 0.31 0.03
比叶面积 SLA 0.62 0.57 0.02 0.135 0.57 0.53 0.09 0.16
总生物量 Total biomass 0.98 0.94 0.57 0.09 0.96 0.93 0.51 0.24
根生物量比 RMR 0.53 0.42 0.08 0.12 0.26 0.07 0.08 0.14
茎生物量比 SMR 0.17 0.1 0.16 0.09 0.1 0.2 0.19 0.07
叶生物量比 LMR 0.4 0.24 0.25 0.05 0.03 0.22 0.25 0.07
相对生长速率 RGR 0.52 0.42 0.1 0.07 0.5 0.45 0.14 0.05
最大净光合速率 Amax 0.71 0.67 0.11 0.03 0.64 0.59 0.005 0.12
光补偿点 LCP 0.87 0.93 0.04 0.48 0.81 0.86 0.08 0.21
光饱和点 LSP 0.56 0.55 0.05 0.03 0.53 0.5 0.05 0.11
平均值 Mean value 0.6 0.51 0.18 0.12 0.49 0.46 0.17 0.12
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