Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 237-245.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016159

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Overview of the Mammal Diversity Observation Network of Sino BON

Zhishu Xiao1, 5, *(), Xueyou Li2, Zuofu Xiang3, Ming Li1, Xuelong Jiang2, Libiao Zhang4   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    3 College of Life Science and Technology, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004
    4 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    5 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2016-06-14 Accepted:2017-02-28 Online:2017-04-07
  • Xiao Zhishu

Mammals are key indicators for biodiversity conservation and management due to their high diversity, wide distribution range, and sensitivity to habitat changes. Recently launched by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Mammal Diversity Monitoring Network of Sino BON (Sino BON-Mammal) is a key member of the Biodiversity Monitoring Networks of Sino BON for the monitoring and inventory of terrestrial mammal resources in China. Firstly, this paper reviews several major advances in terrestrial mammal diversity observations in both China and other parts of the world. We then provide an overview of Sino BON-Mammal, including the major scientific goals, monitoring framework, methods, and data products. In addition, we also summarize some working advances of the Mammal Diversity Observation Network of Sino BON since 2011. This overview will be helpful for the development of national observation programs of mammal diversity in China.

Key words: Mammal Diversity Monitoring Network of Sino BON (Sino BON-Mammal), biodiversity conservation, scientific goals, monitoring data products, monitoring methods

1 Ahumada JA, Silva K, Gajapersad C, Hallam J, Hurtado E, Martin A, McWilliam B, Mugerwa T, O’Brien T, Rovero F (2011) Community structure and diversity of tropical forest mammals, data from a global camera trap network. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences, 366, 2703-2711.
2 Blumstein DT, Mennill DJ, Clemins P, Girod L, Yao K, Patricelli G, Deppe JL, Krakauer AH, Clark C, Cortopassi KA, Hanser SF, McCowan B, Ali AM, Hanser SF (2011) Acoustic monitoring in terrestrial environments using microphone arrays: applications, technological considerations and prospectus. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 758-767.
3 Brinkman TJ, Chapin T, Kofinas G, Person DK (2009) Linking hunter knowledge with forest change to understand changing deer harvest opportunities in intensively logged landscapes. Ecology and Society, 14, 36.
4 Coad L, Schleicher J, Milner-Gulland EJ, Marthews TR, Starkey M, Manica A, Abernethy KA (2013) Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon. Conservation Biology, 27, 270-280.
5 Dirzo R, Young HS, Galetti M, Ceballos G, Isaac NJB, Collen B (2014) Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science, 345, 401-406.
6 Dong L, Wang D, Wang K, Mei Z, Wang S, Akamatsu T, Kimura S (2015) Yangtze finless porpoises along the main channel of Poyang Lake, China: implications for conservation. Marine Mammal Science, 31, 612-628.
7 Elton C (1942) Voles, Mice and Lemmings: Problems in Population Dynamics. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
8 Fa JE, Olivero J, Farfán MÁ, Márquez AL, Duarte J, Nackoney J, Vargas JM (2015) Correlates of bushmeat in markets and depletion of wildlife. Conservation Biology, 29, 805-815.
9 Guan TP, Ge BM, McShea W, Li S, Song YL, Stewart C (2013) Seasonal migration by a large forest ungulate: a study on takin (Budorcas taxicolor) in Sichuan Province, China. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 59, 81-91.
10 Huang B, Guan ZH, Ni QY, Orkin J, Fan PF, Jiang XL (2013) Observation of intra- and extra-group copulation and reproductive characters in free ranging groups of western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis). Integrative Zoology, 8, 427-440.
11 Jiang G, Qi J, Wang G, Shi Q, Darman Y, Hebblewhite M, Miquelle DG, Li Z, Zhang X, Gu J, Chang Y, Zhang M, Ma J (2015) New hope for the survival of the Amur leopard in China. Scientific Reports, 5, 15475.
12 Kays R, Crofoot MC, Jetz W, Wikelski M (2015) Terrestrial animal tracking as an eye on life and planet. Science, 348, aaa2478.
13 Kimura S, Akamatsu T, Li S, Dong S, Dong L, Wang K, Wang D, Arai N (2010) Density estimation of Yangtze finless porpoises using passive acoustic sensors and automated click train detection. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128, 1435-1445.
14 Krebs CJ (2013) Population Fluctuations in Rodents. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
15 Kunz TH, Parsons S (2009) Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
16 Li C, Zhao C, Fan PF (2015) White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): a new macaque species from Modog, southeastern Tibet. American Journal of Primatology, 36, 679-690.
17 Li S, Wang DJ, Xiao ZS, Li XH, Wang TM, Feng LM, Wang Y (2014) Camera-trapping in wildlife research and conservation in China: review and outlook. Biodiversity Science, 22, 685-695.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李晟, 王大军, 肖治术, 李欣海, 王天明, 冯利民, 王云 (2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物研究与保护中的应用与前景. 生物多样性 22, 685-695.]
18 Li XY, Jiang X (2014) Implication of musk deer (Moschus spp.) depletion from hunter reports and dung transect data in northwest Yunnan, China. Journal for Nature Conservation, 22, 474-478.
19 Li XY, Buzzard P, Jiang X (2014) Habitat associations of four ungulates in mountain forests of southwest China, based on camera trapping and dung counts data. Population Ecology, 56, 251-256.
20 Li XH, Jiang G, Tian H, Xu L, Yan C, Wang Z, Zhang Z (2015) Human impact and climate cooling caused range contraction of large mammals in China over the past two millennia. Ecography, 38, 74-82.
21 Lin L, Zhang LT, Luo AD, Wang LF, Zhang L (2011) Population dynamics, structure and seasonal distribution pattern of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Shangyong Protected Area, Yunnan, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 31, 226-234.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[林柳, 张龙田, 罗爱东, 王利繁, 张立 (2011) 尚勇保护区亚洲象种群数量动态、种群结构及季节分布格局. 兽类学报 31, 226-234.]
22 Loucks C, Mascia MB, Maxwell A, Huy K, Duong K, Chea N, Seng T (2009) Wildlife decline in Cambodia, 1953-2005: exploring the legacy of armed conflict. Conservation Letters, 2, 82-92.
23 Luo Z, Jiang Z, Tang S (2014) Impacts of climate change on distributions and diversity of ungulates on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecological Applications, 25, 24-38.
24 Ma SL, Harris RB (1996) Use of remote camera systems to document wildlife species presence in forested areas of Yunnan. Zoological Research, 17, 360-370.
(in Chinese) [马世来, Harris RB (1996) 自动感应照相系统在野生动物调查中的应用. 动物学研究 17, 360-370.]
25 Maclulich DA (1937) Fluctuations in the Numbers of Varying Hare (Lepus americanus). University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
26 Mondol S, Karanth UK, Samba Kumar N, Gopalaswamy AM, Andheria A, Ramakrishnan U (2009) Evaluation of non-invasive genetic sampling methods for estimating tiger population size. Biological Conservation, 142, 2350-2360.
27 Monastersky R (2014) Life, a status report. Nature, 516, 158-161.
28 O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (2011) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, New York.
29 Pan W, Lin L, Luo A, Zhang L (2009) Corridor use by Asian elephants. Integrative Zoology, 4, 220-231.
30 Pei KQ (1998) An evaluation of using auto-trigger camera to record activity patterns of wild animals. Taiwan Journal of Forestry Science, 13, 317-324.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[裴家骐 (1998) 利用自动照相设备记录野生动物活动模式之评估. 台湾森林科学 13, 317-324.]
31 Pei KQ, Chen CZ, Wu ST, Teng MQ (1997) Use of camera-trapping and geographic information system to study spatial distribution of forest wildlife. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 30, 279-289.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[裴家骐, 陈朝圳, 吴守徒, 滕民强 (1997) 利用相机捕获和地理信息系统研究野生动物在森林中的空间分布. 中华林学季刊 30, 279-289.]
32 Piao ZJ, Piao LG, Wang ZC, Luo YM, Wang C, Sui YC (2012) Population size variation of black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and brown bear (U. arctos) between 1986 to 2010 in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 47(3), 66-72.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [朴正吉, 朴龙国, 王卓聪, 罗玉梅, 王超, 睢亚橙 (2012) 长白山自然保护区黑熊和棕熊种群数量动态分析. 动物学杂志 47(3), 66-72.]
33 Piao ZJ, Sui YC, Cui ZG, Zhang GL, Wang Q, Fu XK (2011) The history and current status of felid population in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 46(3), 78-84.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[朴正吉, 睢亚橙, 崔志刚, 张国利, 王群, 傅学魁 (2011) 长白山自然保护区猫科动物种群数量变化及现状. 动物学杂志 46(3), 78-84.]
34 Rovero F, Tobler M, Sanderson J (2010) Camera trapping for inventorying terrestrial vertebrates. In: Manual on Field Recording Techniques and Protocols for All Taxa Biodiversity Inventories and Monitoring (eds Eymann J, Degreef J, Häuser C, Monje JC, Samyn Y, Vanden Spiegel D), pp. 100-128. The Belgian National Focal Point to the Global Taxonomy Initiative.
35 TEAM Network (2011) Terrestrial Vertebrate Protocol: Implementation Manual, v. 3.1. Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring Network, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International,Arlington VA (accessed on April 2011)
36 Wang TM, Feng LM, Mou P, Wu JG, Smith JLD, Xiao WH, Yang HT, Dou HL, Zhao XD, Cheng YC, Zhou B, Wu HY, Zhang L, Tian Y, Guo QX, Kou XJ, Han XM, Miquelle DG, Oliver CD, Xu RM, Ge JP (2016) Amur tigers and leopards returning to China: direct evidence and a landscape conservation plan. Landscape Ecology, 31, 491-503.
37 Wang YX, Jiang XL, Feng Q, Chen ZP, Wang WM (1997) Abundance, sustainable utilization and conservation of leopard cat in Yunnan. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 17, 31-42.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[王应祥, 蒋学龙, 冯庆, 陈志平, 王为民 (1997) 云南豹猫资源量的可持续利用与保护. 兽类学报 17, 31-42.]
38 Wearn OR, Rowcliffe JM, Carbone C, Bernard H, Ewers RM (2013) Assessing the status of wild felids in a highly-disturbed commercial forest reserve in Borneo and the implications for camera trap survey design. PLoS ONE, 8, e77598.
39 Xiao ZS (2014) An introduction to wildlife camera trapping monitoring from Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio). Biodiversity Science, 22, 808-809.(in Chinese)
[肖治术 (2014) 我国森林动态监测样地的野生动物红外相机监测. 生物多样性 22, 808-809.]
40 Xiao ZS (2016) Wildlife resource inventory using camera- trapping in natural reserves in China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 36, 270-271.(in Chinese)
[肖治术 (2016) 红外相机技术促进我国自然保护野生动物资源编目调查. 兽类学报 36, 270-271.]
41 Xiao ZS, Li XH, Jiang GS (2014a) Applications of camera trapping to wildlife surveys in China. Biodiversity Science, 22, 683-684.(in Chinese)
[肖治术, 李欣海, 姜广顺 (2014a) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测研究中的应用. 生物多样性 22, 683-684.]
42 Xiao ZS, Li XH, Wang XZ, Zhou QH, Quan RC, Shen XL, Li S (2014b) Developing camera-trapping protocols for wildlife monitoring in Chinese forests. Biodiversity Science, 22, 704-711.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[肖治术, 李欣海, 王学志, 周岐海, 权锐昌, 申小莉, 李晟 (2014b) 探讨我国森林野生动物红外相机监测规范. 生物多样性 22, 704-711.]
43 Xiao ZS, Wang XZ, Li XH (2014c) An introduction to CameraData: an online database of wildlife camera trap data. Biodiversity Science, 22, 712-716.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[肖治术, 王学志, 李欣海 (2014c) 野生动物多样性监测图像数据管理系统CameraData介绍. 生物多样性 22, 712-716.]
44 Xie WH, Yang XF, Li JN, Tao SL, Xiao ZS (2014) A preliminary study of the biodiversity of ground-dwelling small mammals in Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province. Biodiversity Science, 22, 216-222.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[谢文华, 杨锡福, 李俊年, 陶双伦, 肖治术 (2014) 八大公山自然保护区地栖性小兽多样性初步研究. 生物多样性 22, 216-222.]
45 Yan C, Xu L, Xu T, Cao X, Wang F, Hao S, Yang H, Zhang Z (2013) Agricultural irrigation mediates climatic effects and density dependence in population dynamics of Chinese striped hamster in North China Plain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 334-344.
46 Yang XF, Xie WH, Tao SL, Li JN, Xiao ZS (2014) A comparison of live traps and pitfall traps for monitoring the diversity of ground-dwelling small mammals in forests. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 34, 193-199.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[杨锡福, 谢文华, 陶双伦, 李俊年, 肖治术 (2014) 笼捕法和陷阱法对森林小型兽类多样性监测效率比较. 兽类学报 34, 193-199.]
47 Yang Q, Meng X, Xia L, Feng Z (2003) Conservation status and causes of decline of musk deer (Moschus spp.) in China. Biological Conservation, 109, 333-342.
48 Zhan X, Li M, Zhang Z, Goossens B, Chen Y, Wang H, Wei F (2006) Molecular censusing doubles giant panda population estimate in a key nature reserve. Current Biology, 16, 451-452.
49 Zhang LB, Cui SP, Huang YJ, Chen DQ, Qiao HJ, Li CW, Jiang ZG (2014) Infrared camera traps in wildlife research and monitoring in China: issues and insights. Biodiversity Science, 22, 696-703.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[张履冰, 崔绍朋, 黄元骏, 陈代强, 乔慧捷, 李春旺, 蒋志刚 (2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测中的应用: 问题与限制. 生物多样性 22, 696-703.]
50 Zhang L, Wang N (2003) An initial study on habitat conservation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), with a focus on human elephant conflict in Simao, China. Biological Conservation, 112, 453-459.
51 Zhang ZB, Pech R, Davis S, Shi DZ, Wan XR, Zhong WQ (2003) Extrinsic and intrinsic factors determine the eruptive dynamics of Brandt’s voles Microtus brandti in Inner Mongolia, China. Oikos, 100, 299-310.
52 Zhang ZB, Xu L, Guo C, Wang Y, Guo YW (2010) Effect of ENSO-driven precipitation on population irruptions of the Yangtze vole Microtus fortis calamorum in the Dongting Lake region of China. Integrative Zoology, 5, 176-184.
53 Zhao QJ, Gu HF, Yan C, Cao K, Zhang ZB (2016) Impact of forest fragmentation on rodent-seed network. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 36, 15-23.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵清建, 顾海峰, 严川, 曹科, 张知彬 (2016) 森林破碎化对鼠类-种子互作网络的影响. 兽类学报 36, 15-23.]
54 Zhou J, Wei FW, Li M, Pui Lok CB, Wang DL (2008) Reproductive characters and mating behaviour of wild Nomascus hainanus. International Journal of Primatology, 29, 1037-1046.
[1] Zhang Xiaoling, Li Yichao, Wang Yunyun, Cai Hongyu, Zeng Hui, Wang Zhiheng. Influence of future climate change in suitable habitats of tea in different countries [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 595-606.
[2] Zhao Yang,Wen Yuanyuan. Development of Convention on Biological Diversity’s Global Platform for Business & Biodiversity: Policy suggestion for China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(3): 339-346.
[3] Xiangyu Jia,Bin Bai,Jieqing Zhang,Yi Huang. The effects of IPBES deliverables on global biodiversity conservation strategy—an analysis based on the U. S. pollinator protection policy [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(5): 527-534.
[4] Huijie Qiao,Xiaoyi Wang,Wei Wang,Zhenhua Luo,Ke Tang,Yan Huang,Shengnan Yang,Weiwei Cao,Xinquan Zhao,Jianping Jiang,Junhua Hu. From nature reserve to national park system pilot: Changes of environmental coverage in the Three-River-Source National Park and implications for amphibian and reptile conservation [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(2): 202-209.
[5] Wumei Xu, Xiuqin Ci, Jie Li. Parallel effects of environmental properties on genetic diversity and species diversity [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(5): 481-489.
[6] Xingfeng Si, Yuhao Zhao, Chuanwu Chen, Peng Ren, Di Zeng, Lingbing Wu, Ping Ding. Beta-diversity partitioning: methods, applications and perspectives [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(5): 464-480.
[7] Cheng Li,Feng Xie,Jing Che,Jianping Jiang. Monitoring and research of amphibians and reptiles diversity in key areas of China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(3): 246-254.
[8] Yuan Chen,Zheng Wang,Zuofu Xiang. Seed dispersal by primates [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(3): 325-331.
[9] Zaifu Xu. Conservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity are two sides of a coin: Xishuangbanna Dai’s ecological culture as an example [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(1): 126-130.
[10] Guanghua Zhao,Yu Tian,Zhiyao Tang,Junsheng Li,Hui Zeng. Distribution of terrestrial national nature reserves in relation to human activities and natural environments in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2013, 21(6): 658-665.
[11] Nancai Pei,Bufeng Chen. DNA barcoding of life: a classification of uses according to function and scale after ten years of development [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2013, 21(5): 616-627.
[12] Yanni Zhang,Zhiming Zhang,Yupeng Geng,Xiaokun Ou,Shengjing Peng,Wenli Wang,Xin Feng,Jingwen Guo. Priority plant communities for conservation in Northwest Yunnan [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2013, 21(3): 296-305.
[13] Dayuan Xue, Jianyong Wu, Fuwei Zhao. Actions, progress and prospects in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity during the past 20 years in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(5): 623-632.
[14] Guoke Chen, Keping Ma. Criteria and methods for assessing the threat status of ecosystem [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(1): 66-75.
[15] He He, Jin Chen. Visiting motivation and satisfaction of visitors to Chinese botanical gardens [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(5): 589-596.
Full text



[1] Ledis Regalado, Alexander R. Schmidt, Patrick Müller, Lisa Niedermeier, Michael Krings, and Harald Schneider. Heinrichsia cheilanthoides gen. et sp. nov., a fossil fern in the family Pteridaceae (Polypodiales) from the Cretaceous amber forests of Myanmar[J]. J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(4): 329 -338 .
[2] YANG Hao,LUO Ya-Chen. Responses of the functional traits in Cleistogenes squarrosa to nitrogen addition and drought[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2015, 39(1): 32 -42 .
[3] Yann-Ru Lou, Sheaza Ahmed, Jian Yan, Adewale M. Adio, Hannah M. Powell, Paul F. Morris, and Georg Jander. Arabidopsis ADC1 functions as an Nδ-acetylornithine decarboxylase[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 0, (): 0 .
[4] Kai Cai, Jun Yin, Hongmin Chao, Yaping Ren, Liping Jin, Yangrong Cao, Deqiang Duanmu and Zhongming Zhang. A C3HC4-type RING finger protein regulates rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis in Lotus japonicus[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2018, 60(9): 878 -896 .
[5] Keping Ma. DNA barcode: from species to biome[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(3): 279 -280 .
[6] LI Yao-Dong WEI Yu-Ning XU Ben-Mei. Study on the ABA Content and SOD Activity in Ancient Lotus and Modern Lotus Seeds[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(05): 439 -442 .
[8] Ji Young Jang, Kyung Jin Kwak and Hunseung Kang. Expression of a High Mobility Group Protein Isolated from Cucumis sativus Affects the Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress Conditions[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2008, 50(5): 593 -600 .
[9] DING Chun-Bang, ZHOU Yong-Hong, ZHENG You-Liang, YANG Rui-Wu, WEI Xiu-Hua. Karyotypes of six species and two subspecies in Pseudoroegneria and three species in Roegneria[J]. J Syst Evol, 2004, 42(2): 162 -169 .
[10] MEI Wen-Li QI Shu-Hua WU Gao-Fen CHEN Chang-Xiang. Flavonoids from Cinnamomum zeylanicum [J]. Plant Diversity, 2001, 23(03): 1 -3 .