Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (11): 1240-1248.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015345

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• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Soil microbial diversity observation in China: current situation and future consideration

Xiangzhen Li1, *, Liangdong Guo2, Jiabao Li1, Minjie Yao1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, CAS; Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2015-12-07 Accepted:2016-03-29 Online:2016-12-14
  • Li Xiangzhen

Soil microbial diversity has not been extensively observed due to technique limitations. With the development of the high-throughput sequencing technique and bioinformatics, much progress has been made in observations of microbial diversity. Currently, international microbiome initiatives have been founded (including the Earth Microbial Project). However, problems in these projects include a lack of dynamic observations, differences in observational methods, and data integration. The soil microbial observation network (SMON) is an important part of the Chinese Biodiversity Monitoring and Research Network (Sino BON). The observational network initially selected field observation sites in forest ecosystems along a temperature and precipitation gradient from south to north, in grassland ecosystems along a precipitation transect from east to west, and in typical wetland and agricultural ecosystems in China. Field ecological observation stations have been established in these selected ecosystems. Key tasks for the SMON are to observe spatial and temporal dynamics of soil microbial communities and functional genes in various ecosystems, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and lichens. Observational data will be published periodically in the format of database, annals, and illustrated handbooks. Key methods used in the SMON are high- throughput sequencing, metagenomics, and bioinformatics. A soil biota database is currently being constructed to store observational data for public inquiry and analysis. Through the efforts of SMON, we plan to explore the driving mechanisms of spatial and temporal variations of soil microbial communities and their functional genes, and understand the relationships between microbial diversity and ecosystem function, in order to predict microbial dynamics under global environmental change scenarios, and to design strategies to protect soil microbial diversity and properly utilize microbial resources.

Key words: soil microbial community, diversity, monitoring network, metagenomics, ecosystem function

Fig. 1

General scientific goals and outline of soil microbial observation network"

Table 1

Observation items, approaches and main aims of soil microbial diversity"

监测内容
Observation items
监测方法
Approaches
主要指标
Main aims
监测点的基本生态、地理信息数据
采集
Ecological and geographic information collection
野外直接测量、数据收集等
Field observation, data collection
地理坐标、气候参数(温度、降雨等)、植被组成、生物量、土地利用类型等
Geographic coordinate, climate parameters (temperature, precipitation), plant composition and biomass, land use types
土壤微生物的群落组成和多样性(真
菌、细菌、古菌等)
Soil microbial community composition and diversity (fungi, bacteria, archaea)
高通量测序(Hiseq、Miseq)、生物信
息学分析
High-throughput sequencing (Hiseq, Miseq), bioinformatics analysis
鉴定出微生物的系统组成和多样性
Revealing soil microbial community composition and diversity
土壤基因组的组成和多样性
Soil genomic composition and diversity
高通量测序(Hiseq)、定量PCR
High-throughput sequencing,
quantitative PCR
鉴定出土壤微生物群落的功能基因组成和多样性
Revealing soil microbial functional gene composition and diversity
重点森林样地大型真菌监测
Observation of macrofungi in typical forest ecosystems
野外样线调查、形态观察、生理特
征检测等
Field study, morphology observation, physiology study
完成重点森林样地的大型真菌组成和多样性调查及生理生态特征描述
Revealing soil macrofungal composition, diversity and physiological characteristics
土壤微生物过程监测
Observation of microbial processes
野外直接测定
Field measurement
重点监测与温室气体排放、养分循环相关的过程
Revealing the processes related to greenhouse gas flux and nutrient cycling
土壤微生物的分离、纯化和生理鉴定
Isolation, purification and
characteristics of soil microorganisms
微生物分离培养技术
Microbial isolation and culturing techniques
分离纯化鉴定重要的微生物菌种资源
Isolating and identifying important microorganisms

Fig. 2

General technique route used in the soil microbial observation network"

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