Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (2): 175-184.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015225

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Functional group classification and niche identification of major fish species in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve, Zhejiang Province

Chengye Hu1, Yuyue Shui2, Kuo Tian1, Liang Li1, Hulin Qin1, Chuncao Zhang1, Mengmeng Ji1, Bonian Shui1, *   

  1. 1 School of Fishery, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316000
    2 Zhoushan Ocean and Fishery Bureau, Zhejiang 316000
  • Received:2015-08-18 Accepted:2015-09-15 Online:2016-03-03
  • Shui Bonian

To understand the status of fish communities in the Qixing Islands Provincial Marine Reserve, China, we carried out bottom trawl surveys during the autumn of 2014 and the spring of 2015. By using niche breadths and their overlaps, non-metric multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster dendrograms, we studied the composition of functional groups and niche characteristics of major fish communities. In terms of feeding habits, six functional groups were identified: planktivores, benthivores, piscivores, planktivores/benthivores, benthivores/piscivores and omnivores. Planktivores, benthivores and benthivores/piscivores were the major fish communities in autumn; whereas planktivores, piscivores and omnivores were the dominant fish communities in spring. Shannon-Wiener’s niche breadth index (Bi) and the Pianka’s niche overlap index were used to compare dominant fish species. The niche breadth of dominant fish species ranged from 0.28 and 3.84 in autumn and Harpodon nehereus, Polydactylus sexfilis, Thrissa kammalensis, Odontamblyopus rubicundus, Muraenesox cinereus, Chrysochir aureus and Johnius belengerii had wider niche breadths (Bi>1.0). The niche breadth of dominant fish species ranged from 0.36 and 3.16 in spring and Trichiurus lepturus, Engraulis japonicus, Decapterus maruadsi, Psenopsis anomala, H. nehereus and Pampus argenteus had wider niche breadths (Bi>1.0). The niche overlap of dominant fish species in autumn and spring ranged from 0 to 0.94 and 0 to 0.92, respectively. Based on the square root of the abundance, and using non-metric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis, fish communities during autumn and spring were divided into four and three groups, respectively. Through the analysis of functional group composition, niche breadth and niche overlap in the Qixing Islands Provincial Marine Reserve, we find improved fish community nutrition structure and spatial structure within the reserve.

Key words: functional groups, niche breadth, niche overlap, non-metric multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering, fish

Fig. 1

Survey stations of fishery resource in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve"

Fig. 2

K-dominance curves of major fish in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve"

Table 1

Composition of different functional groups of major fish in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve"

种类
Species
秋季Autumn 春季
Spring
浮游生物食性群 Planktivores (FG1)
日本鳀 Engraulis japonicus +
赤鼻棱鳀 Thrissa kammalensis +
刺鲳 Psenopsis anomala +
镰鲳 Pampus echinogaster +
关岛小鲉 Scorpaenodes guamensis +
底栖动物食性群 Benthivores (FG2)
六指马鲅 Polydactylus sexfilis +
四线天竺鲷 Apogon quadrifasciatus +
红狼牙鰕虎鱼 Odontamblyopus rubicundus +
孔鰕虎鱼 Trypauchen vagina +
六丝矛尾鰕虎鱼 Amblychaeturichthys hexanema + +
黄姑鱼 Nibea albiflora +
黑姑鱼 Atrobucca nibe +
宽体舌鳎 Cynoglossus robutus +
焦氏舌鳎 Cynoglossus joyneri +
游泳动物食性群 Piscivores (FG3)
海鳗 Muraenesox cinereus +
带鱼 Trichiurus lepturus +
日本鲐 Scomber japonicus +
浮游生物/底栖动物食性群 Planktivores/ Benthivores (FG4)
黄鲫 Setipinna tenuifilis + +
棘头梅童鱼 Collichthys lucidus + +
底栖动物/游泳动物食性群 Benthivores/ Piscivores (FG5)
龙头鱼 Harpodon nehereus + +
尖头黄鳍牙鱼或 Chrysochir aureus +
叫姑鱼 Johnius belengerii +
大黄鱼 Larimichthys crocea +
小黄鱼 Larimichthys polyactis +
绿鳍鱼 Chelidonichthys kumu +
杂食性群 Omnivores (FG6)
蓝圆鲹 Decapterus maruadsi +

Fig. 3

The non-metric multidimensional scaling of major fish in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve. Species numbers are the same as those in Table 2."

Table 2

The niche breadth of major fishes in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve"

秋季 Autumn 春季 Spring
编号
No.
种名 Species 生态位宽度
Niche breadth
编号
No.
种名 Species 生态位宽度
Niche breadth
Q1 龙头鱼 Harpodon nehereus 3.84 C1 日本鳀 Engraulis japonicus 3.12
Q2 六指马鲅 Polydactylus sexfilis 3.71 C2 蓝圆鲹 Decapterus maruadsi 2.95
Q3 赤鼻棱鳀 Thrissa kammalensis 1.51 C3 带鱼 Trichiurus lepturus 3.16
Q4 红狼牙鰕虎鱼 Odontamblyopus rubicundus 1.31 C4 龙头鱼 Harpodon nehereus 1.32
Q5 海鳗 Muraenesox cinereus 1.48 C5 刺鲳 Psenopsis anomala 1.5
Q6 尖头黄鳍牙鱼或 Chrysochir aureus 1.2 C6 镰鲳 Pampus echinogaster 1.02
Q7 叫姑鱼 Johnius belengerii 1.1 C7 日本鲐 Scomber japonicus 0.68
Q8 四线天竺鲷 Apogon quadrifasciatus 0.67 C8 六丝矛尾鰕虎鱼 Amblychaeturichthys hexanema 0.65
Q9 孔鰕虎鱼 Trypauchen vagina 0.44 C9 黄鲫 Setipinna tenuifili 0.67
Q10 大黄鱼 Larimichthys crocea 0.67 C10 棘头梅童鱼 Collichthys lucidus 0.75
Q11 棘头梅童鱼 Collichthys lucidus 0.81 C11 黑姑鱼 Atrobucca nibe 0.59
Q12 关岛小鲉 Scorpaenodes guamensis 0.67 C12 绿鳍鱼 Chelidonichthys kumu 0.36
Q13 宽体舌鳎 Cynoglossus robutus 0.39
Q14 六丝矛尾鰕虎鱼 Amblychaeturichthys hexanema 0.46
Q15 小黄鱼 Larimichthys polyactis 0.28
Q16 焦氏舌鳎 Cynoglossus joyneri 0.42
Q17 黄鲫 Setipinna tenuifili 0.25
Q18 黄姑鱼 Nibea albiflora 0.43

Table 3

The niche overlaps of major fishes during autumn in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve"

编号
No.
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17
Q2 0.61
Q3 0.46 0.39
Q4 0.59 0.50 0.09
Q5 0.68 0.67 0.12 0.45
Q6 0.69 0.82 0.11 0.49 0.48
Q7 0.81 0.79 0.21 0.65 0.81 0.54
Q8 0.62 0.51 0.75 0.39 0.39 0.16 0.53
Q9 0.29 0.29 0.12 0.80 0.27 0.22 0.55 0.42
Q10 0.65 0.73 0.17 0.29 0.39 0.83 0.56 0.12 0.21
Q11 0.68 0.77 0.10 0.53 0.31 0.83 0.46 0.18 0.13 0.49
Q12 0.71 0.63 0.06 0.73 0.43 0.69 0.55 0.29 0.43 0.54 0.64
Q13 0.47 0.60 0.20 0.38 0.52 0.46 0.77 0.42 0.59 0.59 0.24 0.33
Q14 0.69 0.57 0.20 0.62 0.36 0.42 0.59 0.27 0.17 0.25 0.68 0.41 0.14
Q15 0.58 0.65 0.16 0.28 0.35 0.81 0.52 0.02 0.13 0.94 0.54 0.46 0.67 0.32
Q16 0.52 0.36 0.62 0.17 0.56 0.25 0.46 0.65 0.08 0.37 0.00 0.16 0.32 0.20 0.37
Q17 0.55 0.50 0.04 0.38 0.85 0.50 0.64 0.22 0.12 0.48 0.22 0.37 0.39 0.35 0.43 0.63
Q18 0.61 0.70 0.26 0.13 0.51 0.45 0.67 0.36 0.24 0.65 0.29 0.18 0.23 0.22 0.55 0.36 0.33

Table 4

The niche overlaps of major fishes during spring in the Qixing Islands Marine Reserve"

编号
No.
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11
C2 0.68
C3 0.58 0.44
C4 0.15 0.21 0.22
C5 0.24 0.28 0.35 0.03
C6 0.11 0.03 0.16 0.74 0.03
C7 0.74 0.30 0.66 0.03 0.06 0.04
C8 0.12 0.08 0.18 0.76 0.09 0.62 0.00
C9 0.56 0.48 0.67 0.60 0.16 0.23 0.68 0.42
C10 0.15 0.16 0.31 0.77 0.23 0.85 0.08 0.36 0.40
C11 0.09 0.18 0.15 0.72 0.10 0.82 0.02 0.28 0.34 0.92
C12 0.08 0.11 0.13 0.69 0.05 0.97 0.02 0.47 0.23 0.87 0.90

Fig. 4

The hierarchical cluster dendrogram of major fishes in Qixing Islands Provincial Marine Reserve. Species numbers are the same as those in Table 2."

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