生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 246-254.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016137

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中国关键地区两栖爬行动物多样性监测与研究

李成1, 谢锋1, 车静2, 江建平1,*()   

  1. 1 .中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041
    2 .中国科学院昆明动物研究所, 昆明 650223
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-16 接受日期:2016-09-02 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-04-07
  • 通讯作者: 江建平
  • 基金资助:
    中国生物多样性监测与研究网络项目(Sino BON)和国家自然科学基金(31471964)

Monitoring and research of amphibians and reptiles diversity in key areas of China

Cheng Li1, Feng Xie1, Jing Che2, Jianping Jiang1,*()   

  1. 1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
  • Received:2016-05-16 Accepted:2016-09-02 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-04-07
  • Contact: Jiang Jianping

摘要:

两栖爬行动物是良好的环境指示物种, 是环境变化的早期预警系统之一, 目前正经历着全球范围的种群快速下降和物种灭绝。为了观测和研究物种及种群下降或灭绝的态势和机制, 亟需对我国两栖爬行动物多样性开展长期监测和研究。在中国, 对两栖爬行动物的监测研究始于1997年对若尔盖湿地两栖动物的监测。此后, 两栖爬行动物监测率先在西南山地、台湾等生物多样性丰富地区开展起来。2011年, 在借鉴美国和英国的两栖爬行动物监测计划的基础上, 环境保护部启动了“两栖类示范观测项目”, 初步实现了由点到面、由定性到定量、由静态向动态的突破。因为单一类群的监测仅代表生态系统的基本组成, 而从生态系统角度考量, 必须深入研究生态系统的结构(食物网中各类群的捕食、竞争、共生等种间关系)和动态(各类群的生长、繁殖、种群波动和致危因素等)。因此, 作为中国生物多样性监测与研究网络(Sino BON)的重要组成部分, “中国关键地区两栖爬行动物监测与研究专项网”项目将在22个生物多样性关键地区对典型生态系统中的两栖爬行动物组成、种群动态和结构进行长期监测与研究, 构建生态模型, 探讨两栖爬行动物的种群现状、群落结构及其动态趋势和相关机制, 制定和不断完善我国两栖爬行动物应对未来环境变化的保护和管理对策。

关键词: 监测网络, 两栖动物, 爬行动物, 监测指标, 监测方法, 中国

Abstract:

Amphibians and reptiles are important indicator species of ecosystem health, and they are sensitive to environmental changes and are often regarded as critical “early warning systems”. Many of their populations are undergoing rapid decline and therefore a long-term monitoring system is imperative to identify immediate threats to the animals. Monitoring program on Chinese amphibians began in the Zoige wetlands in 1997. Since 2000, a great number of monitoring studies of amphibians and reptiles have been carried out in mountains of Southwest China, Taiwan, and other regions with rich biodiversity. In 2011, the Ministry of Environmental Protection officially launched the “Amphibian Observation Initiative of China” program, which expanded regional programs to country-wide using both qualitative and quantitative methods to collect amphibian biodiversity data across long-term temporal scales. From an ecosystem viewpoint, long-term monitoring studies should include not only species distribution, richness, and population structure, but also population growth, key life-history traits, species interactions (e.g., predation, competition, and mutualism), community structure, and other dynamic factors. The program “Monitoring and Research of Amphibians and Reptiles in Key Areas of China” will cover 22 key areas with rich biodiversity and high habitat heterogeneity across China. As part of the Chinese Biodiversity Monitoring and Research Network (Sino BON), this program aims to combine intensive field surveys and ecological modeling techniques to evaluate population dynamics and community structures of amphibian and reptile species in the study areas.

Key words: monitoring networks, amphibians, reptiles, monitoring variables, monitoring methods, China