生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 63-74.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004008

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

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福建黄岗山东南坡和西北坡乔木物种多样性及群落特征的垂直变化

郑成洋,刘增力,方精云   

  1. (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20 发布日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 郑成洋

Tree species diversity along altitudinal gradient on southeastern and northwestern slopes of Mt. Huanggang, Wuyi Mountains, Fujian, China

ZHENG Cheng-Yang, LIU Zeng-Li, FANG Jing-Yun   

  1. Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20 Published:2004-01-20
  • Contact: ZHENG Cheng-Yang

摘要: 利用福建黄岗山东南坡30个样方和西北坡13个样方的资料,研究该地区乔木物种丰富度的垂直变化。东南坡共记录到乔木物种151种,隶属于42科73属; 西北坡102种,隶属于32科54属。两坡面的乔木树种组成相差不大。物种丰富度随海拔的变化趋势是: 随海拔升高,科、属、种的数量呈下降的趋势; 东南坡科、属、种的数量在海拔800-1000 m达到最大值,西北坡在海拔1500-1600 m达到最大值。东南坡乔木物种Shannon-Wiener指数 (H′) 与海拔呈负相关; 西北坡在海拔1200- 1800 m范围内H′高于东南坡; Srenson指数 (IAc) 在不同植被类型交替时出现上下波动,从常绿阔叶林向针阔混交林转化时,物种更替强烈,SØrenson指数明显下降。乔木物种生长特征的分析表明,最大树高 (Hmax) 和最大胸径 (DBHmax) 出现在中海拔,在相同海拔范围内西北坡的Hmax和DBHmax高于东南坡; 东南坡Hmax和DBHmax的峰值出现在海拔800-900 m,西北坡出现在海拔1800 m。东南坡立木密度在海拔1500 m处达最高值,而西北坡立木密度变化不明显,仅在海拔1900 m以上明显下降。将全部乔木种划分为常绿阔叶、针叶和落叶阔叶等三种生活型,分析不同生活型的生长特征发现,常绿阔叶种类的胸高断面积和 (total basal area, TBA) 在低海拔占比例大; 针叶种类沿海拔出现两个峰值,与分布两种不同针叶林种类有关; 落叶阔叶林的TBA在各海拔段均占一定比例,但在西北坡的比例要高于东南坡。两坡三种生活型的TBA沿海拔梯度变化特征基本上相似。

关键词: 物种组成, 生物多样性, 海拔梯度, 生长特征, 黄冈山

Abstract: To investigate altitudinal changes of tree species biodiversity and community structures, we investigated 30 plots on the southeastern slope and 13 plots on the northwestern slope of Mt. Huanggang, Wuyi Mountains, Fujian Province. We recorded 151 tree species from 42 families and 73 genera on the southeastern slope, and 102 tree species from 32 families and 54 genera on the northwestern slope. There was no significant difference of tree species composition between these two slopes. The number of families, genera and species in the tree layer decreased as altitude increased. The richest families, genera and species were recorded at the altitudes between 800-1000 m a.s.l. on the southeastern slope, and between 1500-1600 m a.s.l. on the northwestern slope. The species diversity of tree layer on the northwestern slope was higher than that of the southeastern slope from 1200-1800m a.s.l.. ShannonWiener index (H′) correlated negatively with elevation on both slopes. Srenson index (IAc) varied in transitional zones between vegetation types, and was lowest at the ecotone between evergreen broadleaved forests and mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests. Considering community structures, larger maximum tree height (Hmax) and maximum diameter of breast height (DBHmax) were recorded at middle elevations than at upper or lower elevations. Hmax and DBHmax were higher on the northwestern slope than on the southeastern slope at the same elevations. Total basal area (TBA) of evergreen broadleaved trees was greater than those of deciduous broadleaved trees and coniferous trees at low elevations. TBA of coniferous trees showed two peaks, corresponding to two different types of coniferous species while that of deciduous broadleaved species stayed stable along the altitudinal gradient. TBA of deciduous broadleaved trees was greater on the northwestern slope than on the southeastern slope. TBA patterns of these three life forms along the altitudinal gradient were similar on both slopes.