生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 547-553.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07050

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雷州半岛流沙湾潮间带底栖贝类多样性

柯盛1, 申玉春2, *(), 谢恩义2, 李再亮2   

  1. 1 广东海洋大学分析测试中心, 广东湛江 524088
    2 广东海洋大学南海水产经济动物增养殖广东普通高校重点实验室, 广东湛江 524088
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-18 接受日期:2013-03-28 出版日期:2013-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 申玉春 E-mail:shenyuchun@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    广东省科技计划项目(2011B03110001、22012A020602050);广东省海洋渔业科技推广专项(A201201I02)

Biodiversity of the benthic shellfish in the intertidal zone of the Liusha Bay, Leizhou Peninsula

Sheng Ke1, Yuchun Shen2, *(), Enyi Xie2, Zailiang Li2   

  1. 1 Analytical and Testing Center of Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524088
    2 Key Laboratory of Aquaculture in South China Sea for Aquatic Economic Animals, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524088
  • Received:2013-03-18 Accepted:2013-03-28 Online:2013-09-20
  • Contact: Shen Yuchun E-mail:shenyuchun@163.com

为了解高密度贝类养殖模式下潮间带底栖贝类的物种组成、时空分布以及多样性特征。作者于2008-2009年分别对雷州半岛流沙湾海草床区、贝类养殖区以及非养殖区等三个海区潮间带进行底栖贝类采样。结果表明: (1)潮间带共有贝类97种, 非养殖区分布种类最多(58种), 海草床区则最少(49种), 珠带拟蟹守螺(Cerithidea cingulata)与纵带滩栖螺(Batillaria zonalis)均属三海区的优势种类; (2)非养殖区与海草床区底栖贝类生物量及丰度均以9月份最高, 5月份最低。海草床区及贝类养殖区底栖贝类的生物量与丰度均为高潮区>中潮区>低潮区。(3)Margalef丰富度指数与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数最高的海区是非养殖区, Pielou均匀度指数则以贝类养殖区的最高。从K-优势度曲线亦分析得出贝类养殖区受干扰程度最大。分析表明, 贝类养殖区与海草床区潮间带底栖贝类的群落结构不稳定且生物多样性较低, 其中较低的贝类养殖密度、适量面积的海草床覆盖率、混合型底质类型及强波浪扰动能提高底栖贝类的群落结构稳定性与生物多样性。

关键词: 分布特征, 生物多样性, 生物量, 丰度, 底栖贝类

An analysis was conducted of species composition, spatial-temporal distribution and biodiversity of benthic shellfish in the intertidal zone of the Liusha Bay, Leizhou Peninsula, where shellfish are intensively framed. Areas sampled in 2008 and 2009 included seagrass beds (SGB), cultured shellfish areas (CSA) and non-cultured areas (NCA). We found (1) 97 shellfish species, of which 58 occurred in the NCA and 49 in the SGB. Cerithidea cingulata and Batillaria zonalis were dominant species in all three areas. (2) In the SGB and NCA, biomass and abundance of shellfish reached highest values in September and lowest in May. In the SGB and CSA, highest biomass and abundance of shellfish occurred in the high-tidal zone, followed by the mid-tidal zone and low-tidal zone. (3) Highest Margalef richness index and Shannon-Wiener index values were estimated for the NCA while the highest Pielou evenness index values was obtained for the CSA. Based on an analysis of K-dominance curves, the CSA was most severely disturbed. In summary, an unstable community structure and reduced biodiversity of shellfish was evident in the intertidal zone of the SGB and CSA. Improvements to both community structure and biodiversity of benthic shellfish in these areas are likely to result from reducing the intensity of shellfish culturing and extending seagrass coverage and mix-typed sediment.

Key words: distribution, biodiversity, biomass, abundance, benthic shellfishes

图1

流沙湾潮间带采样断面分布图。N: 非养殖区; F: 贝类养殖区; S: 大型海草床区"

表1

流沙湾三个不同海区的贝类分布"


Family
非养殖区
Non-cultured shellfish areas
大型海草床区
Seagrass beds
贝类养殖区
Cultured shellfish areas
种数
Species
比例%
Proportion%
种数
Species
比例%
Proportion%
种数
Species
比例%
Proportion%
蚶科 Arcidae 2 3.4 2 4.1 1 1.8
贻贝科 Mytilidae 4 6.9 4 8.2 4 7.1
江珧科 Pinnidae - - 1 2.0 - -
珍珠贝科 Pteriidae 1 1.7 1 2.0 1 1.8
不等蛤科 Anomiidae - - 2 4.1 2 3.6
牡蛎科 Ostreidae 3 5.2 1 2.0 3 5.4
扇贝科 Pectinidae 2 3.4 1 2.0 - -
帘蛤科 Veneracea 12 20.7 10 20.4 17 30.4
蛤蜊科 Mactridae 1 1.7 1 2.0 1 1.8
樱蛤科 Tellinidae 1 1.7 1 2.0 - -
双带蛤科 Semelisae 1 1.7 1 2.0 - -
紫云蛤科 Psammobiidae - - - - 1 1.8
竹蛏科 Solenidae - - 1 2.0 - -
刀蛏科 Cultellidae 1 1.7 0 0.0 - -
同心蛤科 Lsocardidae - - 1 2.0 - -
棱蛤科 Trapeziidae 1 1.7 1 2.0 1 1.8
绿螂科 Glauconomidae 1 1.7 - - 1 1.8
鸭嘴蛤科 Laternulidae - - - - 1 1.8
马蹄螺科 Trochidae 3 5.2 2 4.1 1 1.8
蝾螺科 Turbinidae 2 3.4 2 4.1 1 1.8
蜒螺科 Neritidae 2 3.4 3 6.1 3 5.4
宝贝科 Cypraeidae - - - - 1 1.8
钥孔虫戚科 Fissurellidae 1 1.7 - - 1 1.8
滨螺科 Littorinidae 2 3.4 - - 2 3.6
汇螺科 Potamididae 4 6.9 3 6.1 5 8.9
蟹守螺科 Cerithiidae 2 3.4 1 2.0 1 1.8
风螺科 Strombidae 1 1.7 1 2.0 0 0.0
玉螺科 Naticidae - - - - 1 1.8
嵌线螺科 Cymatiidae 1 1.7 - - - -
牙螺科 Columbellidae 1 1.7 - - - -
盔螺科 Galeodidae - - 1 2.0 - -
骨螺科 Muricidae 2 3.4 2 4.1 1 1.8
织纹螺科 Nassariidae 4 6.9 2 4.1 3 5.4
笔螺科 Mitridae 1 1.7 2 4.1 1 1.8
阿地螺科 Atyidae 1 1.7 1 2.0 1 1.8
海兔科 Aplysiidae 1 1.7 1 2.0 1 1.8
总计 Total 58 100 49 100 56 100

图2

流沙湾底栖贝类生物量和丰度的时间分布(A与B)与垂直分布(C与D)"

表2

底栖贝类的生物多样性指数的时空变化"

海区
Area
航次
Time
指数 Index
d J' H'
非养殖区
Non-cultured shellfish areas
1月 Jan. 0.60 0.81 1.61
3月 Mar. 2.98 0.66 2.69
5月 May 1.36 0.90 2.33
7月 July 1.49 0.78 2.71
9月 Sept. 1.04 0.67 1.87
11月 Nov. 1.20 0.70 2.11
平均 Average 3.04 2.51 0.71
大型海草床区
Seagrass
beds
1月 Jan. 1.03 0.53 1.58
3月 Mar. 1.72 0.38 1.50
5月 May 1.56 0.39 1.34
7月 July 1.05 0.50 1.59
9月 Sept. 0.94 0.33 0.98
11月 Nov. 0.83 0.20 1.46
平均 Average 1.65 1.89 0.48
贝类养殖区
Cultured shellfish areas
1月 Jan. 1.04 0.58 1.84
3月 Mar. 3.56 0.56 2.59
5月 May 1.52 0.42 1.49
7月 July 1.29 0.61 2.02
9月 Sept. 1.04 0.67 1.87
11月 Nov. 0.91 0.56 0.60
平均 Average 1.94 2.57 0.43

图3

各采样点的K-优势度曲线"

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