生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 422-434.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019071

• 阿勒泰动物多样性专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆阿勒泰地区额尔齐斯河和乌伦古河流域鱼类多样性演变和流域健康评价

李雪健1,2,贾佩尧2,牛诚祎2,邢迎春3,李浩林4,刘海波2,唐文乔1,*(),赵亚辉2,*()   

  1. 1 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院, 上海 201306
    2 中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    3 中国水产科学研究院, 北京 100039
    4 天津自然博物馆, 天津 300201
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-11 接受日期:2020-01-14 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-06-15
  • 通讯作者: 唐文乔,赵亚辉
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2013FY110300);生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Species diversity of freshwater fish and assessment on watershed health in the Irtysh River and Ulungur River basins in Xinjiang, China

Xuejian Li1,2,Peiyao Jia2,Chengyi Niu2,Yingchun Xing3,Haolin Li4,Haibo Liu2,Wenqiao Tang1,*(),Yahui Zhao2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
    2 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3 Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100039
    4 Tianjin Natural History Museum, Tianjin 300201
  • Received:2019-11-11 Accepted:2020-01-14 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-06-15
  • Contact: Wenqiao Tang,Yahui Zhao

摘要:

为了解阿勒泰地区额尔齐斯河和乌伦古河流域的鱼类多样性现状和历史演变, 本研究于2013-2016年间在该流域的鱼类多样性进行了连续调查, 并结合历史资料和标本, 以Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数分析评估了流域内鱼类的多样性水平和时空变化。该流域历史上分布有土著鱼类23种, 当前记录到19种, 流域内还有外来鱼类15种。阿勒泰鱼类的区系组成以鲤科种类为主, 其中特有和珍稀濒危物种占比高, 具有重要的保护价值。多样性指数计算结果显示, 2013-2016年鱼类多样性情况整体稳定, 额尔齐斯河鱼类物种数多于乌伦古河。研究还基于鱼类生物完整性指数(Fish Index of Biological Integrity, F-IBI)对34个采集点的河流健康状况进行了评价, 结果显示额尔齐斯河流域大多数调查点的健康状况处于“亚健康”或“一般”水平, 乌伦古河流域多数调查点的健康状况处于“健康”水平。水利工程、外来物种、过度捕捞是影响阿勒泰地区鱼类多样性的重要因素。未来应通过水利工程的联合调度、下泄合理生态流量、布设鱼类通道、规范养殖渔业、严控外来物种、本地土著鱼类的人工增殖放流, 以及合理的就地保护措施对阿勒泰地区的鱼类多样性加以保护, 提升水体健康程度。

关键词: 北冰洋水系, 淡水鱼类, 生物完整性指数, 河流健康, 中国

Abstract:

We conducted yearly field surveys between 2013 and 2016 in Altay Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to understand the current status of fish species diversity and its change in the Irtysh River and the Ulungu River basins. The Margalef richness index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and the Pielou evenness index were applied to assess the species diversity and temporal and spatial variation of freshwater fishes, based on the data collected from our field investigations, museum collection, and research literature. There were 23 native fish species distributed in the Irtysh River and the Ulungu River basins. And 19 of them were collected with 15 exotic species during our surveys. The fish fauna is dominated by cyprinid fishes. High proportions of endemic and endangered fish are distinct characteristics of fish composition in Altay Prefecture. Our results showed that the fish diversity in the basins was generally stable between 2013 and 2016. Species richness in the Irtysh River was higher than one in the Ulungu River. Additionally, the Fish Index of Biological Integrity (F-IBI) of 34 sampling sites indicated that the river health of most sites in the Irtysh River basin was at the “sub-health” or “general” level, while that of most ones in the Ulungu River basin was “healthy”. Water infrastructures, exotic species, and overexploitation of fish resources were key factors to influence freshwater fishes in the region. Aiming at the protection of fish biodiversity and improvement of river healthy, several ways should be applied in future including ecological scheduling of multi-scale coupling of reservoir group, construction of fish pass, scientific management of aquaculture to control the exotic species, artificial enhancement and releasing of endemic and endangered fish, and in situ conservation.

Key words: Arctic water system, freshwater fish, IBI, river health, China