生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 993-1001.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019135

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

滇西太保山森林公园子囊菌门虫生真菌物种多样性及其消长动态

陈自宏1, 王元兵2, 代永东2, 陈凯1, 徐玲1, *(), 何謦成3, *()   

  1. 1 保山学院高黎贡山生物资源研究所, 云南保山 678000
    2 云南大学中草药生物资源研究所云百草实验室, 昆明 650091
    3 云南农业大学学报编辑部, 昆明 650201
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-18 接受日期:2019-06-21 出版日期:2019-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐玲,何謦成 E-mail:xuling09083@163.com;358779197@qq.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金地区基金(31460153);云南省科技厅地方本科高校基础研究联合专项资金重点项目(2017FH001-126);云南省科技厅地方本科高校基础研究联合专项资金面上项目(2017FH001-029);保山市第六批中青年学术和技术带头人项目(bszqnxshjsdtr201701);中国博士后科学基金面上项目(2017M613017);云南省高校滇西昆虫资源保护与利用重点实验室建设项目

Species diversity and seasonal fluctuation of entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota in Taibaoshan Forest Park in western Yunnan

Zihong Chen1, Yuanbing Wang2, Yongdong Dai2, Kai Chen1, Ling Xu1, *(), Qingcheng He3, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Biological Resources of Gaoligong Mountains, Baoshan University, Baoshan, Yunnan 678000
    2 Yunnan Herbal Laboratory, Institute of Herbal Biotic Resources, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    3 Editorial Office of Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2019-04-18 Accepted:2019-06-21 Online:2019-09-20
  • Contact: Xu Ling,He Qingcheng E-mail:xuling09083@163.com;358779197@qq.com

云南及青藏高原存在着丰富的虫生真菌资源。本文选择云南省保山市省级城市森林公园太保山森林公园为研究区域, 对子囊菌门虫生真菌物种多样性及其季节消长动态开展了系统研究。在2016年每月采集土样和罹病昆虫, 分离虫生真菌菌株, 采用多基因(nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1RPB2)系统发育分析进行物种鉴定, 通过α多样性分析来研究虫生真菌的数量特征和种群消长动态。太保山森林公园子囊菌门虫生真菌全年均有分布, 共获得395个菌株, 包括3科9属24种; 优势属为虫草属(Cordyceps) (6个种199个菌株), 白僵菌属(Beauveria) (5个种80个菌株), 优势种依次为Akanthomyces sp.、Cordyceps tenuipesC. cicadaeC. fumosoroseaBeauveria bassiana。7月菌株检出率最高(85株, 占总数的21.4%), 8月物种丰富度(15种)和多样性指数(2.35)最高。在5个优势种中, 只有Cordyceps cicadae受季节变化影响较大, 集中分布于5-9月, 7月分布最丰富(35株, 占该月菌株总数的41.2%); 其他4个种一年大部分时间(11或12个月)都能检测到。结果表明, 太保山森林公园子囊菌门虫生真菌资源丰富, 多数优势种对季节变化适应能力较强。

关键词: 太保山森林公园, 虫生真菌, 物种多样性, 优势属种, 消长动态

Yunnan Province and the Tibetan Plateau are home to a large diversity of entomogenous fungi. We selected Taibaoshan Forest Park of Baoshan City, in Yunnan to investigate the species diversity of entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota and their seasonal fluctuations throughout the year. We collected samples of soil and infected insects monthly in 2016, and the entomogenous fungal strains were isolated before multigene (nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1, and RPB2) phylogenetic analyses were used to identify species. Finally we quanitifed the fluctuations throughout the year in alpha diversity. Entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota in Taibaoshan Forest Park were found through the entire year and we identified a total of 395 fungal strains, including 24 species from nine genera of three families. Cordyceps (199 strains of six species) and Beauveria (80 strains of five species) were the dominant genera. Akanthomyces sp., Cordyceps tenuipes, C. cicadae, C. fumosorosea and Beauveria bassiana were the dominant species. The detection rate of strains was the highest (85 strains, 21.4% of the total) in July, But the species richness (15 species) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index (2.35) were the highest in August. Among the five most dominant species, only C. cicadae was much affected by seasonal changes: occurring from May to September and being most prosperous in July (35 strains, 41.2% of the total strains in July). The other four species were detected through most of the year (11 or 12 months), indicating a constant abundance of entomogenous Ascomycota were abundant in Taibaoshan Forest Park, regardless of seasonal changes.

Key words: Taibaoshan Forest Park, entomogenous fungi, species diversity, dominant genera and species, population dynamics

表1

太保山森林公园虫生真菌"


Family

Genus
物种
Species
菌株数
Strain number
重要值
Importance value
虫草科
Cordycipitaceae
刺束梗孢属 Akanthomyces Akanthomyces sp. 73 0.185
白僵菌属 Beauveria 球孢白僵菌 B. bassiana 52 0.132
假球孢白僵菌 B. pseudobassiana 20 0.051
墨脱白僵菌 B. medogensis 4 0.010
亚洲白僵菌 B. asiatica 2 0.005
布氏白僵菌 B. brongniartii 2 0.005
虫草属 Cordyceps 蝉花 C. cicadae 56 0.142
高雄山虫草 C. tenuipes 56 0.142
玫烟色虫草 C. fumosorosea 54 0.137
环链虫草 C. cateniannulata 28 0.071
斜链虫草 C. cateniobliqua 4 0.010
双梭孢虫草 C. bifusispora 1 0.003
球束梗孢属 Gibellula 丽球束梗孢 G. pulchra 18 0.046
蜡蚧菌属 Lecanicillium 刀孢蜡蚧菌 L. psalliotae 3 0.008
线虫草科
Ophiocordycipitaceae
线虫草属 Ophiocordyceps
黄棒线虫草 O. clavata 1 0.003
红蚁线虫草 O. myrmicarum 1 0.003
蚁生线虫草 O. myrmecophila 1 0.003
多头霉属 Polycephalomyces 枝多头霉 P. ramosus 2 0.005
枝垫多头霉 P. ramosopulvinatus 1 0.003
紫孢菌属 Purpureocillium 淡紫紫孢菌 P. lilacinum 4 0.010
蜘蛛紫孢菌 P. atypicola 1 0.003
麦角菌科
Clavicipitaceae
绿僵菌属 Metarhizium 金龟子绿僵菌 M. anisopliae 6 0.015
莱氏绿僵菌 M. rileyi 3 0.013
鳞腮绿僵菌 M. lepidiotae 2 0.008

图1

太保山森林公园虫生真菌多基因(nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1和RPB2)系统发育树。加粗字体表示太保山虫生真菌的基因序列。"

图2

太保山森林公园虫生真菌不同物种的菌株数量百分比"

表2

太保山森林公园虫生真菌不同月份的消长动态"

月份
Month
菌株数
No. of strains
物种丰富度Species richness 优势度指数
Dominance index
均匀度
Evenness
Shannon-Wiener index 空气温度
Air temperature (℃)
空气湿度
Air humidity (%)
1 16 4 0.33 0.87 1.21 10 ± 2.1 44 ± 3.2
2 20 6 0.26 0.86 1.54 14 ± 2.8 43 ± 3.6
3 13 6 0.29 0.83 1.48 17 ± 2.3 40 ± 3.1
4 11 5 0.26 0.91 1.47 21 ± 2.2 46 ± 2.6
5 20 7 0.18 0.94 1.83 26 ± 2.3 68 ± 4.3
6 59 11 0.14 0.89 2.14 28 ± 1.1 83 ± 3.0
7 85 10 0.21 0.82 1.89 28 ± 1.5 75 ± 5.9
8 59 15 0.11 0.87 2.35 29 ± 0.8 57 ± 5.1
9 40 8 0.23 0.81 1.69 25 ± 1.1 63 ± 4.0
10 28 8 0.20 0.87 1.80 24 ± 1.2 60 ± 4.2
11 30 7 0.22 0.88 1.71 18 ± 1.7 51 ± 1.5
12 14 6 0.29 0.82 1.48 14 ± 1.6 47 ± 2.3

图3

太保山森林公园虫生真菌优势物种的消长动态"

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