生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (12): 1321-1330.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017135

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

全国陆生野生动物调查单元区划方案

郜二虎1, *(), 何杰坤2, 王志臣1, 徐扬2, 唐小平1, 江海声2   

  1. 1 .国家林业局调查规划设计院, 北京 100714
    2 .华南师范大学生命科学学院, 广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-03 接受日期:2017-10-09 出版日期:2017-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 郜二虎 E-mail:805482272@qq.com
  • 基金项目:
    全国第二次陆生野生动物资源调查项目

China’s zoogeographical regionalization based on terrestrial vertebrates

Erhu Gao1, *(), Jiekun He2, Zhichen Wang1, Yang Xu2, Xiaoping Tang1, Haisheng Jiang2   

  1. 1 Academy of Forest Inventory and Planning, State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100714
    2 School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631
  • Received:2017-05-03 Accepted:2017-10-09 Online:2017-12-20
  • Contact: Gao Erhu E-mail:805482272@qq.com

我国早期的动物地理区划主要依靠专家知识和经验, 缺乏系统的定量分析, 而且部分基本区划单元内的动物生态成分差异仍然较大, 使其在野生动物保护管理应用中受到一定限制。为满足野生动物保护管理的需要, 尤其为满足全国第二次陆生野生动物资源调查的需要, 我们在张荣祖“中国动物地理区划”的基础上, 进行了全国野生动物调查单元区划。将全国陆地区域划分为5 km × 5 km的网格, 基于1,784种陆栖脊椎动物(262种两栖动物、358种爬行动物、814种鸟类、350种兽类)的分布数据, 对各网格内的动物分布型比例及自然环境因子进行聚类分析。根据聚类结果, 并结合指示物种的分布情况以及省级行政区划界线, 将全国划分为2界7区19亚区54个动物地理省239个生态地理单元310个调查单元。与张荣祖“中国动物地理区划”方案相比, 界、区、亚区、动物地理省的数量一致, 边界走向基本一致, 但也有一些界线不同, 而且增加了“生态地理单元”和“调查单元” 2级区划单元。

关键词: 野生动物, 区划, 聚类分析, 动物地理, 生态地理单元, 调查单元

China’s previous zoogeographical regionalization designations were delineated according to expert knowledge and experience. However, these previous designations have limited application in wildlife conservation and management because of a lack of quantitative footing. Additionally, there are still significant differences in the ecological components of some of the basic units. In order to meet the needs of wildlife protection and management, especially the needs of the Second National Survey on Terrestrial Wildlife Resources in China, we carried out national wildlife survey unit zoning, based on Zhang Rongzu’s “Zoogeographical Regions of China”. In this study, hierarchical clustering was applied to a 5 km × 5 km grid of faunistic and environmental components, based on a comprehensive species distribution dataset, consisting of 262 amphibians, 358 reptiles, 814 birds, and 350 mammals. Our results delineated China into 2 realms, 7 regions, 19 sub-regions, 54 zoogeographical provinces, 239 eco-geographical units, and 310 survey units. Compared to Zhang’s scheme, the number of realms, regions, sub-regions, and zoogeographical provinces are the same and most of the boundaries are broadly consistent, however, some discrepancies also emerge. To meet the needs of wildlife conservation and management, two hierarchical levels of zoogeographical units were added, namely eco-geographical units and survey units.

Key words: wildlife, regionalization, clustering, zoogeography, eco-geographical unit, survey unit

图1

各网格动物分布型比例聚类结果示意图: (a) 7类; (b) 19类。其中A-G表示可识别出的7个不同区域; Aa、Ab表示A区可进一步识别出Aa、Ab两个区域, 以此类推。"

图2

我国主要动物分布型的分布格局"

图3

全国陆生野生动物调查单元区划图"

图4

7个地理区的动物区系成分分类树"

图5

横断山区不同海拔区间各动物分布型比例"

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