生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 758-771.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019087

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国自然保护地空间重叠分析与保护地体系优化整合对策

马童慧,吕偲,雷光春()   

  1. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-18 接受日期:2019-06-06 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-08-21
  • 通讯作者: 雷光春
  • 基金资助:
    保尔森基金会与河源基金会“中国国家公园体制建设研究”项目

The spatial overlapping analysis for China’s natural protected area and countermeasures for the optimization and integration of protected area system

Ma Tonghui,Lü Cai,Lei Guangchun()   

  1. School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2019-03-18 Accepted:2019-06-06 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-08-21
  • Contact: Lei Guangchun

摘要:

自然保护地体系的构建是国际社会高度重视的生物多样性保护策略。近年来, 中国已关注到自然保护地空间重叠交叉的问题, 并出台了《关于建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系的指导意见》。为落实这一战略, 需要对现有保护地的彼此关系与空间分布进行系统研究。为此, 本研究收集了8,572个不同类型和级别自然保护地的坐标、生态系统类型、行政区域及边界等信息, 筛选出1,532个具有空间重叠、管理部门交叉的自然保护地, 计算地理集中指数并采用ArcGIS软件进行了核密度分析, 得出空间重叠保护地分布的生态地理区、生态系统类型、交叉管理部门、所在省份等空间分布特点。研究结果显示: (1)鲁中山区、太行山、大别山、天目山-怀玉山、皖江等生态功能区的自然保护地重叠最为严重(核密度Mean > 6, Max > 8), 其中太行山区、大别山区、天目山-怀玉山区为重叠保护地密度高的生物多样性优先保护区, 目前10个国家公园试点区域中仅大熊猫国家公园体制试点区、湖南南山国家公园体制试点区、钱江源国家公园体制试点区三处位于保护地重叠高密度区; (2)原主管部门中, 原国家林业局与住房和城乡建设部的交叉管理保护地数量最多, 为294个; (3)黑龙江、安徽、山东、河南、湖北、湖南等省范围内的自然保护地空间重叠状况明显高于其他省区, 而晋冀豫与皖鄂赣这两处三省交界处重叠程度更高, 其他多处三省交界区域也存在保护地的中度重叠。故上述生态地理区、原主管部门与行政区应作为中国自然保护地体系优先普查区域与优化整合重点对象。基于重叠保护地核密度热点区、生物多样性保护优先区与生态系统文化服务的分析框架, 本研究按照国家公园、自然保护区、自然公园三类, 对不同生态功能区自然保护地优化整合优先性与类型提出了初步建议, 以期为当前中国自然保护地体系改革的紧迫需求提供参考。

关键词: 自然保护地, 空间重叠, 交叉管理, 整合, 国家公园

Abstract:

The construction of natural protected area system is a biodiversity conservation strategy which has been highly emphasized by international communities. In recent years, China expresses its concerns about the overlapping and intersection of natural protected area and proposed Guidance on Establishing a Natural Protected Area System Dominated by National Parks. To implement the proposed strategy, it is important to conduct a systematic study on the relationship and spatial distribution of the natural protected areas. This study collected data from 8,572 natural protected areas in different categories and administrative levels, including coordinates, types of ecosystems, administrative regions and boundaries. Among them, 1,532 natural protected areas with spatial overlapping and cross-jurisdictions were selected. Geographic concentration index (G) was calculated, and ArcGIS software was adopted for Kernel density estimation. Finally, the spatial distribution patterns, overlap of protected areas in ecological and geographic zones, ecosystem types, agencies with crossing jurisdiction and province locations were obtained. The results showed that: (1) Natural protected areas were concentrated in mountainous areas in central Shandong, Taihang Mountain, Dabie Mountain, Tianmu-Huaiyu Mountain and Wanjiang region, across multiple wetlands and forest ecosystems (Mean > 6, Max > 8). Among 10 pilot national parks, only Giant panda, Nanshan and Qianjiangyuan were located in areas with high density of overlapping; (2) The former State Administration of Forestry and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development had the largest number of sites under cross-jurisdiction among all the former agencies; (3) The number of overlapping natural protected areas in Heilongjiang, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Hunan provinces are significantly higher than other provinces. The overlap between Shanxi-Hebei-Henan and Anhui-Hubei-Jiangxi provinces is higher, and there is moderate overlap in other provinces. The areas studied above could become key priority areas for reassembling and optimizing China’s protected area system. Based on overlap hot zones, priority zones for biodiversity conservation, and cultural ecosystem services, this paper proposes a framework for reassembling and optimizing overlapped protected areas. According to 3 new protected area categories including national parks, nature reserves and natural parks, suggestions are given prioritizing reassembling and associating the area with a new category, which would provide a reference scheme to the urgent needs of ongoing reform of China’s natural protected areas system.

Key words: natural protected area, spatial overlapping, cross-management, optimization, national park