生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 735-742.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019119

• 生物多样性相关传统知识专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

土族生物资源利用相关的传统知识多样性

王国萍1,2,薛达元3,闻苡3,成功3,闵庆文1,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-08 接受日期:2019-07-31 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 闵庆文
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506404);中央民族大学生态学一流学科建设项目(Yldxxk201819)

Diversity of traditional knowledge related to utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in China

Wang Guoping1,2,Xue Dayuan3,Wen Yi3,Cheng Gong3,Min Qingwen1,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resource Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life and Environmental Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2019-04-08 Accepted:2019-07-31 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-08-20
  • Contact: Min Qingwen

摘要:

生物资源利用相关的传统知识是对生物资源进行识别和利用的传统知识系统。随着现代生物技术的发展, 这类传统知识显示出其在科学、经济、文化乃至粮食安全战略方面的价值。本研究根据《生物多样性相关传统知识分类、调查与编目技术规定(试行)》, 对我国青海省土族聚集区的土族生物资源利用相关的传统知识进行了系统调查与编目, 并借鉴生物多样性测度方法, 创建了传统知识多样性指数计算方法, 对土族生物资源利用相关传统知识多样性进行分析。结果如下: (1)编目现存的土族生物资源利用相关的传统知识词条共424条; (2)土族传统知识的α多样性指数DTK = 0.67, 表明其传统知识多样性较高; 土族传统知识的βwtk多样性指数在不同的县域差异较大, 表明其在县域之间存在差异, 在空间上分布不连续、不均匀。本研究利用生物多样性指数验证了传统知识的定量研究方法, 说明传统知识多样性指数不仅可用于定量研究表征区域传统知识的多样性, 揭示不同空间区域内的分布特征, 还可为未来构建传统知识的定量研究体系提供重要的参考依据。

关键词: 土族, 传统知识, 生物资源, 传统知识多样性指数

Abstract:

Traditional knowledge (TK) related to the utilization of biological resources is a knowledge system for identifying and utilizing biological resources. With the development of modern biotechnology, TK highlights its values of science, economy, culture and even food security. In accordance with the Technical Regulations on Classification, Investigation and Documentation of Traditional Knowledge Related to Biodiversity (Trial Version), this study conducted the systematic investigation and documentation of the TK related to the utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in different ethnic agglomeration areas in Qinghai Province, and applied biodiversity index to TK diversity analysis. The results show that: (1) 424 items of TK of Tu nationality’s utilization of biological resources have been documented. (2) The α diversity index (DTK) of TK of Tu nationality is 0.67, which indicates that the diversity of TK of Tu nationality is high; but the β diversity index of TK varies in different counties, indicating that the TK of Tu nationality has unique spatial distribution in different areas with uneven and patchy characteristics. This study applied biodiversity index to TK diversity analysis and verified with the TK of Tu nationality as an example. It could be concluded that the diversity index of TK could not only objectively and practically quantify the diversity of TK but also provide the fundamental basis for establishing a quantitative research methodology of TK in the future.

Key words: Tu nationality, traditional knowledge, biological resources, diversity index of traditional knowledge