生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 255-264.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016274

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玉龙雪山寒温性云冷杉林动态监测样地的物种组成及群落结构

黄华1, 陈智发1, 刘德团1, 和国星2, 和荣华2, 李德铢1,*(), 许琨1,*()   

  1. 1 .中国科学院昆明植物研究所丽江森林生态系统定位研究站, 昆明 650201
    2 .玉龙雪山省级自然保护区管护局, 云南丽江 674100
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-22 接受日期:2017-01-23 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-04-07
  • 通讯作者: 李德铢,许琨
  • 基金资助:
    国家重大科学研究计划(2014CB954100)和云南省应用基础研究基金(2014GA003)

Species composition and community structure of the Yulongxueshan (Jade Dragon Snow Mountains) forest dynamics plot in the cold tem- perate spruce-fir forest, Southwest China

Hua Huang1, Zhifa Chen1, Detuan Liu1, Guoxing He2, Ronghua He2, Dezhu Li1,*(), Kun Xu1,*()   

  1. 1 Lijiang Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    2 Administration Bureau of Yulongxueshan Provincial Nature Reserve, Lijiang, Yunnan 674100
  • Received:2016-09-22 Accepted:2017-01-23 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-04-07
  • Contact: Li Dezhu,Xu Kun

摘要:

云冷杉林是玉龙雪山东坡保存最完整的森林植被, 为了更好地了解其物种组成和群落结构等基本特征, 中国科学院昆明植物研究所联合玉龙雪山省级自然保护区管护局, 按照CTFS (Center for Tropical Forest Science)的样地建设标准, 于2012-2014年在玉龙雪山省级自然保护区内建立了25 ha (500 m × 500 m)的长期监测样地。本研究以样地内所有胸径(DBH) ≥ 1 cm的木本植物(不含竹子)为研究对象, 分析了该样地的区系成分、群落组成、垂直结构及径级结构。结果表明: 样地内DBH ≥ 1 cm的木本植物(不含竹子)独立个体数为47,751, 分属26科41属62种, 以温带分布尤其是北温带成分为主要区系特征。重要值 ≥ 1的物种有18个, 贡献了90.24%的重要值。群落垂直结构可分为4层, 川滇冷杉(Abies forrestii)、丽江云杉(Picea likiangensis)和帽斗栎(Quercus guajavifolia)为主林层优势种和建群种, 径级分布为峰型或近倒“J”型, 持续更新能力较好; 吴茱萸五加(Gamblea ciliata var. evodiifolia)、篦齿槭(Acer pectinatum)和短梗稠李(Padus brachypoda)是主亚林层的优势种, 在某些片段可形成落叶阔叶林的优势群落, 径级分布出现明显断层, 未来将出现衰退。西康花楸(Sorbus prattii)、桦叶荚蒾(Viburnum betulifolium)和云南杜鹃(Rhododendron yunnanense)是次林层的优势种; 灌木层假小檗(Berberis fallax)是样地内个体数最多的物种, 占总个体数的59.51%, 其重要值最高, 占总数的22.75%, 径级分布呈“L”型。

关键词: 生物多样性, 径级结构, 区系, 分布格局

Abstract:

Spruce-fir forests are one of the best protected areas of forest vegetation occurring on the eastern slope of the Yulongxueshan (Jade Dragon Snow Mountains). To further understand the spruce-fir species composition and community structure, a 25 ha (500 m × 500 m) forest dynamics plot was established in the Yulongxueshan Provincial Nature Reserve by the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Administration Bureau of Yulongxueshan Provincial Nature Reserve from 2012 to 2014, according to the standards from the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). In this study, we analyzed the flora, community composition, structure, DBH size-classes and spatial distribution based data collected from all woody (excluding bamboo) plants with DBH ≥ 1 cm. Our results demonstrated that a total of 47,751 free-standing individuals with DBH ≥ 1 cm were recorded, belonging to 62 species, 41 genera and 26 families. The north temperate distribution plant contributed to the most significant floristic characteristics. In the plot, the 18 species with importance value (IV) ≥ 1 contributed 90.24% to the IV of the community. Based on the vertical structure of plant heights, the community was divided into four layers. The dominant species in the canopy layer were Abies forrestii, Picea likiangensis and Quercus guajavifolia, which exhibited a pattern of ridge type and a reverse-J shape in DBH size-classes structure and strong regenerating capacity. Gamblea ciliata var. evodiifolia, Acer pectinatum and Padus brachypoda occupied the sub-canopy layer, and could be the constructive community species in some fragmented habitats. These species were lacking small DBH trees, so their populations are predicted to decline in the future. Sorbus prattii, Viburnum betulifolium and Rhododendron yunnanense dominated the sub-tree layer. In the shrub layer, Berberis fallax consisted of the largest number of individuals and accounting for 59.51% of the total number of individuals; together with the highest importance value, accounting for 22.75% of the total IV, and DBH size-class distribution in a “L” shape.

Key words: biodiversity, DBH size-classes structure, flora, spatial pattern