生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 102-107.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015256

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国石松类和蕨类植物的多样性与地理分布

周喜乐1, 张宪春2, 孙久琼2, 严岳鸿1, , A;*   

  1. 1 (上海辰山植物园, 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602)
    2 (中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093);
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-18 接受日期:2015-12-29 出版日期:2016-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 严岳鸿
  • 基金项目:
    基金项目: 科技部基础性工作专项(2015FY110200)

Diversity and distribution of lycophytes and ferns in China

Xile Zhou1, Xianchun Zhang2, Jiuqiong Sun2, Yuehong Yan1, *   

  1. 1 Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201602
    2 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2015-09-18 Accepted:2015-12-29 Online:2016-01-20
  • Contact: Yan Yuehong

物种编目及其科属系统排列是了解生物多样性的基础, 本文采用Flora of China使用的分类系统, 结合最新分子分类学研究成果以及近几年发表的新资料, 对中国石松类和蕨类植物多样性和地理分布数据进行了统计和分析。结果表明中国共有石松类和蕨类植物40科178属2,147种5个亚种118个变种, 其中特有种839个, 占总种数的39.08%。种数最多的5个科依次为鳞毛蕨科(505种, 含种下单位, 下同)、蹄盖蕨科(323种)、水龙骨科(280种)、凤尾蕨科(266种)和金星蕨科(209种); 种数最多的5个属依次为耳蕨属(Polystichum, 209种)、鳞毛蕨属(Dryopteris, 176种)、蹄盖蕨属(Athyrium, 137种)、双盖蕨属(Diplazium, 98种)和凤尾蕨属(Pteris, 97种)。在地理分布上, 种数排名前5的省份为云南(1,365种)、四川(875种)、贵州(838种)、广西(785种)和台湾(779种)。含中国特有石松类和蕨类植物的科属中, 排前3位的科分别为鳞毛蕨科(257种)、蹄盖蕨科(169种)和凤尾蕨科(113种); 排前3位的属为耳蕨属(140种)、蹄盖蕨属(82种)和鳞毛蕨属(61种)。

关键词: 植物分类学, 保护生物地理学, 生物多样性, 保护生物学, 蕨类植物

The species catalogue and phylogenetic arrangement are the basis of species diversity studies. We collated the latest lycophytes and ferns in China found in recent years using the system from Flora of China. There are 2,147 species, 5 subspecies, 118 varieties, 178 genera and 40 families of lycophytes and ferns in China, including 839 endemic species, which accounts for 39.08% of total species. The top five families are Dryopteridaceae (505 species, including subspecies and varieties), Athyriaceae (323 species), Polypodiaceae (280 species), Pteridaceae (266 species) and Thelypteridaceae (209 species). The top five genera are Polystichum (209 species), Dryopteris (176 species), Athyrium (137 species), Diplazium (98 species) and Pteris (97 species). The following five provinces are rich in lycophytes and ferns: Yunnan (1,365 species), Sichuan (875 species), Guizhou (838 species), Guangxi (785 species) and Taiwan (779 species). Endemic species are rich in families including Dryopteridaceae (257 species), Athyriaceae (169 species), and Pteridaceae (113 species) and genera of Polystichum (140 species), Athyrium (82 species), and Dryopteris (61 species).

Key words: plant taxonomy, conservation biogeography, biodiversity, conservation biology, pteridophytes

表1

中国各省(市、自治区)石松类和蕨类植物多样性及特有种统计"

省(市、自治区)
Province

Species

Genus

Family
中国特有种Number of Chinese endemic species (CES) 占本地区种数比例
Ratio of CES in each province
仅产本地区
Number of local endemic species (LES)
占本地区中国特有种比例
Ratio of LES/CES
国内仅产本地区且国外有分布
Number of species distrbute only in this province and abroad
云南 Yunnan 1,365 (60.13%) 148 (83.15%) 40 (100.00%) 414 30.33 181 43.72 77
四川 Sichuan 875 (38.55%) 116 (65.17%) 36 (90.00%) 284 32.46 54 19.01 1
贵州 Guizhou 838 (36.92%) 119 (66.85%) 36 (90.00%) 227 27.09 31 13.66 1
广西 Guangxi 785 (34.58%) 125 (70.22%) 36 (90.00%) 157 20.00 23 14.65 5
台湾 Taiwan 779 (34.32%) 145 (81.46%) 39 (97.50%) 107 13.74 59 55.14 89
湖南 Hunan 663 (29.20%) 110 (61.80%) 35 (87.50%) 180 27.15 6 3.33 0
西藏 Tibet 579 (25.51%) 104 (58.43%) 33 (82.50%) 121 20.90 49 40.50 14
广东 Guangdong 566 (24.93%) 117 (65.73%) 32 (80.00%) 95 16.78 9 9.47 2
重庆 Chongqing 535 (23.57%) 93 (52.25%) 33 (82.50%) 154 28.79 9 5.84 0
海南 Hainan 451 (19.87%) 113 (63.48%) 33 (82.50%) 62 13.75 33 53.23 19
江西 Jiangxi 442 (19.47%) 96 (53.93%) 33 (82.50%) 85 19.23 2 2.35 0
浙江 Zhejiang 431 (18.99%) 98 (55.06%) 35 (87.50%) 88 20.42 7 7.95 3
福建 Fujian 409 (18.02%) 100 (56.18%) 31 (77.50%) 67 16.38 4 5.97 1
湖北 Hubei 372 (16.39%) 80 (44.94%) 29 (72.50%) 102 27.42 5 4.90 0
甘肃 Gansu 254 (11.19%) 64 (35.96%) 25 (62.50%) 65 25.59 3 4.62 0
安徽 Anhui 237 (10.44%) 69 (38.76%) 26 (65.00%) 39 16.46 0 0.00 1
陕西 Shaanxi 231 (10.18%) 56 (31.46%) 22 (55.00%) 62 26.84 0 0.00 0
河南 Henan 218 (9.60%) 62 (34.83%) 25 (62.50%) 46 21.10 1 2.17 0
香港 Hongkong 212 (9.34%) 77 (43.26%) 29 (72.50%) 16 7.55 0 0.00 0
江苏 Jiangsu 151 (6.65%) 59 (33.15%) 26 (65.00%) 18 11.92 0 0.00 0
河北 Hebei 112 (4.93%) 39 (21.91%) 18 (45.00%) 26 23.21 0 0.00 0
辽宁 Liaoning 110 (4.85%) 41 (23.03%) 19 (47.50%) 10 9.09 0 0.00 2
吉林 Jilin 107 (4.71%) 38 (21.35%) 17 (42.50%) 6 5.61 2 33.33 1
山西 Shanxi 99 (4.36%) 35 (19.66%) 17 (42.50%) 24 24.24 0 0.00 0
山东 Shandong 97 (4.27%) 38 (21.35%) 19 (47.50%) 19 19.59 2 10.53 0
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 89 (3.92%) 34 (19.10%) 17 (42.50%) 4 4.49 1 25.00 3
澳门 Macao 76 (3.35%) 46 (25.84%) 24 (60.00%) 2 2.63 0 0.00 0
内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 72 (3.17%) 25 (14.04%) 15 (37.50%) 11 15.28 0 0.00 0
北京 Beijing 71 (3.13%) 27 (15.17%) 17 (42.50%) 15 21.13 0 0.00 0
新疆 Xinjiang 57 (2.51%) 22 (12.36%) 14 (35.00%) 3 5.26 0 0.00 6
青海 Qinghai 52 (2.29%) 20 (11.24%) 13 (32.50%) 11 21.15 0 0.00 0
上海 Shanghai 51 (2.25%) 31 (17.42%) 17 (42.50%) 2 3.92 0 0.00 0
宁夏 Ningxia 40 (1.76%) 19 (10.67%) 12 (30.00%) 7 17.50 0 0.00 0
天津 Tianjin 29 (1.28%) 15 (8.43%) 12 (30.00%) 5 17.24 0 0.00 0
1 Chapman AD (2009) Numbers of Living Species in Australia and the World, 2nd edn. A Report for the Australian Biological Resources Study. Australian Biodiversity Information Services, Toowoomba, Australia.
2 Ching RC (1978a) The Chinese fern families and genera: systematic arrangement and historical origin. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 16(3), 1-19. (in Chinese)
[秦仁昌 (1978) 中国蕨类植物科属的系统排列和历史来源. 植物分类学报, 16(3), 1-19.]
3 Ching RC (1978b) The Chinese fern families and genera: systematic arrangement and historical origin (cont.). Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 16(4), 16-37. (in Chinese)
[秦仁昌 (1978) 中国蕨类植物科属的系统排列和历史来源(续). 植物分类学报, 16(4), 16-37.]
4 Ching RC, Wu SK (1980) The floristic characteristics of the Xizang (Tibet) pteridophyte flora in relation to the upheaval of the Himalayas. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 2, 382-389. (in Chinese)
[秦仁昌, 武素功 (1980) 西藏蕨类植物区系的特点及其与喜马拉雅隆升的关系. 云南植物研究, 2, 382-389.]
5 Christenhusz M, Zhang XC, Schneider H (2011) A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa, 19, 7-54.
6 Christenhusz M, Schneider H (2011) Corrections to phytotaxa 19: linear sequence of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa, 28, 50-52.
7 Delecti Florae Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae Agendae Academiae Sinicae(1959-2000) Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, Tomus 2-6. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[《中国植物志》编辑委员会(1959-2000) 中国植物志, 2-6卷. 科学出版社, 北京.]
8 Kong XX (1984) The phytogeographical features of pteridophytes of Sichuan, China with some remarks on the “polysticho-dryopteris flora”. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 6, 27-38. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[孔宪需 (1984) 四川蕨类植物地理特点兼论“耳蕨—鳞毛蕨类植物区系’’. 云南植物研究, 6, 27-38.]
9 Liu HM, Jiang RH, Guo J, Hovenkamp P, Perrie LR, Shepherd L, Hennequin S, Schneider H (2013) Towards a phylogenetic classification of the climbing fern genus Arthropteris. Taxon, 62, 688-700.
10 Pryer KM, Schneider H, Smith AR, Cranfill R, Wolf PG, Hunt JS, Sipes SD (2001) Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants. Nature, 409, 618-622.
11 Shrestha N, Xing FW, Qi XP, Yan YH, Zhang XC (2014) Huperziana nlingensis (Lycopodiaceae), a new terrestrial firmoss from southern China. Phytotaxa, 173, 73-79.
12 Shrestha N, Zhang XC (2015a) On the presence of north American clubmoss Huperzia lucidula (Lycopodiaceae) in China: an intercontinental disjunction or misidentification. Phytotaxa, 219, 243-252.
13 Shrestha N, Zhang XC (2015b) Recircumscription of Huperzia serrata complex in China using morphological and climatic data. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 53, 88-103.
14 Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG (2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon, 55, 705-731.
15 Tan YH, Wei R, Li JW, Zhang XC (2015) Didymochlaena Desv. (Hypodematiaceae): a newly recorded fern genus to China. Plant Diversity and Resources, 37, 135-138. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[谭运洪, 卫然, 李剑武, 张宪春 (2015) 中国肿足蕨科一新记录属——翼囊蕨属. 植物分类与资源学报, 37, 135-138.]
16 Wang W, Yang WL, Mao XX, Zhao RR, Dou P, Zhang GM (2015) The phylogenetic affinities of Pellaea connectens, a rare endemic Chinese fern. Phytotaxa, 220, 30-42.
17 Wei R, Zhang XC (2014) Rediscovery of Cystoathyrium chinense Ching (Cystopteridaceae): phylogenetic placement of the critically endangered fern species endemic to China. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 52, 450-457.
18 Wu SH, Ching RC (1991) Fern Families and Genera of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[吴兆洪, 秦仁昌 (1991) 中国蕨类植物科属志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
19 Wu ZY, Raven P, Hong DY (2013) Flora of China.. Vol. 2-3
(Pteridophytes). Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
20 Yan YH, Zhang XC, Ma KP (2013) Pteridophytes in China: Diversity and Distribution. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[严岳鸿, 张宪春, 马克平 (2013) 中国蕨类植物多样性与地理分布. 科学出版社, 北京.]
21 Zhang LB, Zhang L (2015) Didymochlaenaceae: a new fern family of Eupolypods I (Polypodiales). Taxon, 64, 27-38.
22 Zhang XC (2012) Lycophytes and Ferns of China. Peking University Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[张宪春 (2012) 中国石松类和蕨类植物. 北京大学出版社, 北京.]
23 Zhang XC, Wei R, Liu HM, He LJ, Wang L, Zhang GM (2013) Phylogeny and classification of the extant lycophytes and ferns from China. Chinese Bulletin of Botany, 48, 119-137. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[张宪春, 卫然, 刘红梅, 何丽娟, 王丽, 张钢民 (2013) 中国现代石松类和蕨类的系统发育与分类系统. 植物学报, 48, 119-137.]
[1] 黄林韬 黄晖 江雷. (2020) 中国造礁石珊瑚分类厘定. 生物多样性, 28(4): 515-523.
[2] 耿宜佳,田瑜,李俊生,徐靖. (2020) “2020年后全球生物多样性框架”进展及展望. 生物多样性, 28(2): 238-243.
[3] 刘海鸥,张风春,赵富伟,杜乐山,薛达元. (2020) 从《生物多样性公约》资金机制战略目标变迁解析生物多样性热点问题. 生物多样性, 28(2): 244-252.
[4] 王剀,任金龙,陈宏满,吕植桐,郭宪光,蒋珂,陈进民,李家堂,郭鹏,王英永,车静. (2020) 中国两栖、爬行动物更新名录. 生物多样性, 28(2): 189-218.
[5] 马亦生,马青青,何念军,朱大鹏,赵凯辉,刘红彩,李帅,孙亮,唐流斌. (2020) 基于红外相机技术调查佛坪国家级自然保护区兽类和鸟类多样性. 生物多样性, 28(2): 226-230.
[6] 王玉冰,孙毅寒,丁威,张恩涛,李文怀,迟永刚,郑淑霞. (2020) 长期氮添加对典型草原植物多样性与初级生产力的影响及途径. 植物生态学报, 44(1): 22-32.
[7] 李熠,唐志尧,闫昱晶,王科,蔡磊,贺金生,古松,姚一建. (2020) 物种分布模型在大型真菌红色名录评估及保护中的应用: 以冬虫夏草为例. 生物多样性, 28(1): 99-106.
[8] 庄文颖,李熠,郑焕娣,曾昭清,王新存. (2020) 中国非地衣型大型子囊菌受威胁现状评估及致危因素. 生物多样性, 28(1): 26-40.
[9] 李顺,邹亮,宫一男,杨海涛,王天明,冯利民,葛剑平. (2019) 激光雷达技术在动物生态学领域的研究进展. 生物多样性, 27(9): 1021-1031.
[10] 杨锐,彭钦一,曹越,钟乐,侯姝彧,赵智聪,黄澄. (2019) 中国生物多样性保护的变革性转变及路径. 生物多样性, 27(9): 1032-1040.
[11] 李永民,吴孝兵. (2019) 安徽省两栖爬行动物名录修订. 生物多样性, 27(9): 1002-1011.
[12] 张渊媛. (2019) 生物多样性相关传统知识的国际保护及中国应对策略. 生物多样性, 27(7): 708-715.
[13] 杨云卉, 白可喻, Devra Jarvis, 龙春林. (2019) 西双版纳黄瓜农家品种及其传统知识. 生物多样性, 27(7): 743-748.
[14] 孙蓓蓓, 俞存根, 刘惠, 颜文超, 张文俊, 戴冬旭. (2019) 南麂列岛东侧海域春秋季虾蟹类生物多样性. 生物多样性, 27(7): 787-795.
[15] 丁陆彬, 马楠, 王国萍, 何思源, 闵庆文. (2019) 生物多样性相关传统知识研究热点与前沿的可视化分析. 生物多样性, 27(7): 716-727.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed