生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 525-531.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14001

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台湾海峡鱼类组成及其生态区系

陈永俊1, 张静2, 宋普庆1, 张然1, 李渊1, 钟指挥1, 林龙山1, , A;*()   

  1. 1 .国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
    2 .集美大学水产学院, 福建厦门 361012
  • 收稿日期:2014-01-03 接受日期:2014-04-30 出版日期:2014-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 林龙山 E-mail:linlsh2005@126.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家海洋局海洋国际合作及履约项目(2200207)、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(海三科2012013)和国家海洋专项资助项目(908-02-01-02;908-02-04-01)

Composition of the Taiwan Strait fish fauna

Yongjun Chen1, Jing Zhang2, Puqing Song1, Ran Zhang1, Yuan Li1, Zhihui Zhong1, Longshan Lin1, *()   

  1. 1 .Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
    2. Fisheries College of Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361012
  • Received:2014-01-03 Accepted:2014-04-30 Online:2014-07-20
  • Contact: Lin Longshan E-mail:linlsh2005@126.com

本文依据台湾海峡鱼类物种的相关历史调查资料和文献, 分析了台湾海峡鱼类物种组成及其生态类型和区系特征, 探讨全球变化背景下台湾海峡鱼类物种组成变化。结果显示, 台湾海峡共有鱼类1,697种, 分隶40目206科740属, 其中, 目级分类阶元种类数最多的为鲈形目, 科级分类阶元种类数最多的为鰕虎科; 从适温性上看, 暖水性鱼类最多, 有1,560种, 其次为暖温性鱼类(128种)和冷温性鱼类(9种); 栖息地生态类型则以大陆架砂泥质底层鱼类和岩礁性鱼类种类数最多, 各有596种, 其后依次是大陆架近底层鱼类(249种)、大陆架中上层鱼类(158种)和大洋性鱼类(98种), 洄游性鱼类181种, 经济性鱼类735种; 海区间鱼类种类数对比显示, 台湾海峡鱼类与南海鱼类共有种最多, 共有种比例高达91.9%, 其次为东海(69.3%)和黄海(19.4%), 多为印度—西太平洋海区分布种, 仅288种广泛分布于中国各海区。由此, 台湾海峡鱼类区系特征兼有热带和亚热带海区鱼类区系特点, 属于印度—西太平洋暖水区系中—日亚区和印度—马来亚区的过渡海区, 其分界区域在台湾浅滩东部外缘至澎湖列岛偏北海域。

关键词: 台湾海峡, 鱼类区系, 生态类型, 全球变化

In order to study the composition, in terms of ecological type, of the fish fauna in the Taiwan Strait, we collected data from historical surveys and relevant literature on fish species in the region. Here, we discuss variations in fish composition and fishery resources. Our results showed that a total of 1,697 species in 40 orders, 206 families and 740 genera were recorded. The dominant order was Perciformes and the dominant family was Gobiidae. There were 1,560 warm water species, 128 warm temperate species and 9 cold temperate species. The habitat type of fish could be grouped as follows: 596 continental sandy-muddy demersal fish, 596 reef-associated fish, 249 continental benthopelagic fish, 158 continental pelagic-neritic fish and 98 oceanic fish. Among them, 181 were migratory fishes and 735 were economic fishes. The highest number of species were shared between the Taiwan Strait and the South China Sea (91.9% overlap), while 69.3% of species in the Taiwan Strait were also found in the East China Sea, and 19.4% were shared with Yellow Sea. Most of the fishes could be classified as India-Western Pacific species, and only 288 species were distributed among all three areas of the China sea. The fish fauna of Taiwan Strait belongs to India-Western Pacific warm water region, specifically the China/Japan subregion and India-Malaysia subregion, and exhibits tropical and sub-tropical intertwined faunal characteristics. The boundary region of tropical and sub-tropical is around eastern edge of Taiwan Bank to the north of Penghu Islands.

Key words: Taiwan Strait, fish fauna, ecological type, global change

表1

台湾海峡鱼类目、科、属和种的组成"

纲 Class 目 Order 科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species
数量
Numbers (%)
数量
Numbers (%)
数量
Numbers (%)
盲鳗纲 Myxini 盲鳗目 Myxiniformes 1 (0.49) 2 (0.27) 8 (0.47)
软骨鱼纲 Chondrichthyes 银鲛目 Chimaeriformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 1 (0.06)
虎鲨目 Heterodontiformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 1 (0.06)
须鲨目 Orectolobiformes 4 (1.95) 4 (0.54) 6 (0.35)
鼠鲨目 Lamniformes 4 (1.95) 4 (0.54) 4 (0.24)
真鲨目 Carcharhiniformes 6 (2.93) 19 (2.57) 32 (1.88)
六鳃鲨目 Hexanchiformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 1 (0.06)
角鲨目 Squaliformes 2 (0.98) 2 (0.27) 4 (0.24)
扁鲨目 Squatiniformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 4 (0.24)
电鳐目 Torpediniformes 2 (0.98) 5 (0.68) 9 (0.53)
锯鳐目 Pristiformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 1 (0.06)
鳐目 Rajiformes 5 (2.44) 8 (1.08) 14 (0.82)
鲼目 Myliobatiformes 3 (1.46) 10 (1.36) 25 (1.47)
辐鳍鱼纲 Actinopterygii 鲟形目 Acipenseriformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 1 (0.06)
海鲢目 Elopiformes 2 (0.98) 2 (0.27) 3 (0.18)
北梭鱼目 Albuliformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 1 (0.06)
鳗鲡目 Anguilliformes 8 (3.90) 34 (4.59) 85 (5.01)
鲱形目 Clupeiformes 4 (1.95) 21 (2.83) 49 (2.89)
鼠鱚目 Gonorynchiformes 2 (0.98) 2 (0.27) 2 (0.12)
鲶形目 Siluriformes 2 (0.98) 4 (0.54) 4 (0.24)
水珍鱼目 Argentiniformes 1 (0.49) 1 (0.14) 1 (0.06)
胡瓜鱼目 Osmeriformes 1 (0.49) 3 (0.41) 5 (0.29)
巨口鱼目 Stomiiformes 2 (0.98) 8 (1.08) 8 (0.47)
辫鱼目 Ateleopodiformes 1 (0.49) 2 (0.27) 2 (0.12)
仙女鱼目 Aulopiformes 5 (2.44) 8 (1.08) 24 (1.41)
灯笼鱼目 Myctophiformes 2 (0.98) 3 (0.41) 4 (0.24)
月鱼目 Lampriformes 3 (1.46) 5 (0.68) 5 (0.29)
鳕形目 Gadiformes 3 (1.46) 6 (0.81) 15 (0.88)
鼬鳚目 Ophidiiformes 2 (0.98) 7 (0.95) 8 (0.47)
鮟鱇目 Lophiiformes 5 (2.44) 9 (1.22) 16 (0.94)
鲻形目 Mugiliformes 1 (0.49) 5 (0.68) 11 (0.65)
银汉鱼目 Atheriniformes 1 (0.49) 2 (0.27) 4 (0.24)
颌针鱼目 Beloniformes 3 (1.46) 14 (1.89) 30 (1.77)
金眼鲷目 Beryciformes 4 (1.95) 8 (1.08) 19 (1.12)
海鲂目 Zeiformes 2 (0.98) 3 (0.41) 3 (0.18)
刺鱼目 Gasetrosteiformes 6 (2.93) 16 (2.16) 31 (1.83)
鲉形目 Scorpaeniformes 9 (4.39) 50 (6.76) 90 (5.30)
鲈形目 Perciformes 85(41.46) 383 (51.76) 978 (57.63)
鲽形目 Pleuronectiformes 9 (4.39) 40 (5.41) 98 (5.75)
鲀形目 Tetraodontiformes 9 (4.39) 43 (5.81) 90 (5.30)
合计 Total 40 206 (100.0) 740 (100.0) 1,697 (100.0)

表2

台湾海峡不同生态类型和栖息地鱼类种类数组成"

适温性
Temperature adaptability
栖息地生态类型 Habitat type
大陆架砂泥质底层种类
Continental sandy-
muddy demersal fish
大陆架近底层种类
Continental
benthopelagic fish
大陆架中上层种类
Continental pelagic- neritic fish
岩礁性鱼类
Reef-
associated fish
大洋性种类
Oceanic
fish
总种类数Total species
暖水性种类 Warm water 520 219 139 588 94 1,560
暖温性种类 Warm temperate 68 29 19 8 4 128
冷温性种类 Cold temperate 8 1 0 0 0 9
总种类数 Total species 596 249 158 596 98 1,697
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