生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 320-328.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13137

所属专题: 海洋生物多样性

• • 上一篇    下一篇

海南岛西北沿岸海域浮游桡足类的分布及群落特征

孙柔鑫, 王彦国, 连光山, 林茂*()   

  1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-08 接受日期:2014-04-24 出版日期:2014-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 林茂 E-mail:lm3011@126.com
  • 基金项目:
    海洋生物样品库升级与改扩建(GASI-01-02-02);海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201005015)

Distribution and community characteristics of planktonic copepods in the northwest coastal waters off Hainan Island

Rouxin Sun, Yanguo Wang, Guangshan Lian, Mao Lin*()   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2013-06-08 Accepted:2014-04-24 Online:2014-05-20
  • Contact: Lin Mao E-mail:lm3011@126.com

为了解昌江沿岸海域生态系统的现状, 探讨海域环境因素对浮游动物的生存环境造成的影响。本文根据2008年11月至2009年7月在海南西部昌江沿岸水域21个测站、4个季度月调查所获的浮游桡足类样品数据, 对该海域浮游桡足类群落结构、分布、季节变化及影响因素进行了分析。本调查共鉴定出桡足类44种, 隶属4目17科24属, 其中秋季25种, 冬季23种, 春季22种, 夏季23种。本次调查共发现优势种6种, 分别是微刺哲水蚤(Canthocalanus pauper)、亚强次真哲水蚤(Subeucalanus subcrassus)、锥形宽水蚤(Temora turbinata)、刺尾纺锤水蚤(Acartia spinicauda)、椭形长足水蚤(Calanopia elliptica)和精致真刺水蚤(Euchaeta concinna), 优势种以近岸暖水种居多。浮游桡足类丰度季节变化明显: 冬季最高, 达409 ind./m3; 秋季次之, 为144 ind./m3, 春季为55 ind./m3, 夏季最低仅为17 ind./m3。其丰度的平面分布显示: 秋、冬季节分别在海区中部和南部形成明显密集区, 春、夏季节则大致呈现由外海向近岸逐渐递减的趋势。浮游桡足类的多样性指数(H')表现为夏季>春季>秋季>冬季, 春、夏季的均匀度指数(J')明显高于秋、冬季。本调查反映出该海区的桡足类群落具有热带—亚热带区系特征, 种类组成季节更替明显, 桡足类种群受海域水温和硅藻的影响明显, 受盐度影响不明显。

关键词: 浮游桡足类, 海南岛西部, 种类组成, 丰度分布, 季节变化, 环境因子

We analyzed the structure, distribution, and seasonal changes of planktonic copepod communities, as well as their relationships with environmental factors using data collected from 21 stations in the northwest coastal waters off Hainan Island between November 2008 and July 2009. A total of 44 species of planktonic copepods was identified, with 25, 23, 22, and 23 species found in autumn (November), winter (January), spring (April) and summer (July), respectively. The dominant species were mainly warm water species, such as Canthocalanus pauper, Subeucalanus subcrassus, Temora turbinate, Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia elliptica and Euchaeta concinna, etc. There were significant changes in copepod abundance among seasons; total copepod abundance was highest in winter with 409 ind./m3, followed by autumn with 144 ind./m3, spring with 55 ind./m3 and summer with 17 ind./m3, respectively. Distributional data showed that an area of high copepod density appeared in the southern portion of the study area in winter, while there was an area of high copepod density in the center of the survey area in autumn. Copepod abundance was higher in deeper waters, and lower in the coastal areas in spring and summer. Species diversity index was highest in summer and followed by spring, autumn and winter in turn. The evenness index of spring and summer copepod communities was higher than those of autumn and winter. The structure of these planktonic copepod communities reflects tropical and subtropical floristic characteristics. Species composition varied significantly with season, and copepod abundance was noticeably affected by water temperature and diatom cell abundance. We detected no obvious correlationship between copepod abundance and salinity.

Key words: planktonic copepod, western Hainan Island, species composition, abundance distribution, seasonal variation, environmental factors

图1

海南西部昌江沿岸海域浮游桡足类采样测站"

表1

2008-2009年海南昌江近岸浮游桡足类季节更替率"

春/夏
Spring /Summer
夏/秋
Summer/Autumn
秋/冬
Autumn/Winter
冬/春
Winter/Spring
种数 Species richness 22/23 23/25 25/23 23/22
共有种数 Number of common species 12 14 14 12
季节更替率 Seasonal change rate 63.6% 58.8% 58.8% 63.6%

图2

2008-2009年海南昌江近岸亚强次真哲水蚤平面分布(ind./m3)"

图3

2008-2009年海南昌江近岸微刺哲水蚤平面分布(ind./m3)"

表2

2008-2009年海南昌江近岸浮游桡足类主要优势种的季节变化"

季节
Season
优势种类
Dominant species
出现频度
Frequency
平均丰度
Average abundance (ind./m3)
丰度变化范围
Abundance range (ind./m3)
优势度
Dominancy
秋季 (11月) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 1.00 34 3-155 0.11
Autumn (Nov.) 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 1.00 72 21-147 0.24
冬季 (1月) 刺尾纺锤水蚤 Acartia spinicauda 0.86 16 2-36 0.02
Winter (Jan.) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 0.90 28 7-86 0.05
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 1.00 297 6-994 0.59
锥形宽水蚤 Temora turbinata 0.95 51 3-158 0.09
春季 (4月) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 0.95 17 1-45 0.23
Spring (Apr.) 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 0.95 22 1-51 0.31
精致真刺水蚤 Euchaeta concinna 0.38 12 1-34 0.03
夏季 (7月) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 0.86 4 1-14 0.05
Summer (July) 椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica 0.95 5 1-24 0.08
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 0.95 7 1-28 0.13

图4

2008-2009年海南昌江近岸桡足类丰度(ind./m3)的平面分布"

图5

2008-2009年海南昌江近岸浮游桡足类群落多样性指数(H′)和均匀度(J′)的季节变化"

表3

2008-2009年海南昌江近岸桡足类丰度(N)和多样性指数(H′)与温度和盐度的相关性分析"

环境因子
Environmental variable
秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter 春季 Spring 夏季 Summer
N H′ N H′ N H′ N H′
水温 Temperature -0.26 -0.02 0.39 -0.06 -0.04 -0.30 -0.06 -0.43
盐度 Salinity 0.25 -0.06 0.38 -0.25 0.28 0.69** 0.12 0.41

表4

2008-2009年海南西部近岸浮游桡足类优势种与历史资料比较"

时间
Time
海域
Sea area
种类数
Species richness
资料来源
Data source
优势种(优势度)
Dominant species (Dominancy)
1998-1999年夏
The summer of 1998
and 1999
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
84 廖秀丽等, 2011 叉胸刺水蚤 Centropages furcatus (0.181)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.069)
异尾宽水蚤 Temora discaudata (0.038)
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.029)
奥氏胸刺水蚤 Centropages orsinii (0.028)
椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica (0.022)
小唇角水蚤 Labidocera minuta (0.019)
长角隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus longicornis (0.018)
1998-1999年冬
The winter of 1998
and 1999
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
67 廖秀丽等, 2011 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.154)
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.059)
异尾宽水蚤 Temora discaudata (0.029)
长角隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus longicornis (0.024)
驼背隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus gibber (0.020)
羽长腹剑水蚤 Oithona plumifera (0.019)
2006年夏
The summer of 2006
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
113 郭东晖等, 2008 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.21)
异尾宽水蚤 Temora discaudata (0.09)
椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica (0.05)
伯氏平头水蚤 Candacia bradyi (0.04)
普通波水蚤 Undinula vulgaris (0.03)
2006年冬
The winter of 2006
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
84 郭东晖等, 2008 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.43)
精致真刺水蚤 Euchaeta concinna (0.32)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.04)
伯氏平头水蚤 Candacia bradyi (0.02)
2008-2009年夏
The summer of 2008
and 2009
海南昌江沿岸
Changjiang coastal waters of Hainan Island
26 本研究
This study
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.13)
椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica (0.08)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.05)
2008-2009年冬
The winter of 2008
and 2009
海南昌江沿岸
Changjiang coastal waters of Hainan Island
27 本研究
This study
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.59)
锥形宽水蚤 Temora turbinata (0.09)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.05)
刺尾纺锤水蚤 Acartia spinicauda (0.02)

附表1

昌江沿岸水域浮游桡足类种类名录"

物种 Taxa 秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter 春季 Spring 夏季 Summer
哲水蚤科 Calanidae
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper

+

+

+

+
普通波水蚤 Undinula vulgaris + + + +
真哲水蚤科 Eucalanidae
强次真哲水蚤 Eucalanus crassua

+

+
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus + + + +
拟哲水蚤科 Paracalanidae
驼背隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus gibber

+

+
微驼隆哲水蚤 A. gracilis +
厦门矮隆哲水蚤 Bestiola amoyensis +
小拟哲水蚤 Paracalanus parvus + +
宽水蚤科 Temoridae
锥形宽水蚤 Temora turbinata

+

+

+

+
异尾宽水蚤 T. discaudata + + +
柱形宽水蚤 T. stylifera + +
胸刺水蚤科 Centropagidae
瘦尾胸刺水蚤 Centropages tenuiremis

+

+

+

+
叉胸刺水蚤 C. furcatus +
背针胸刺水蚤 C. dorsispinatus +
奥氏胸刺水蚤 C. orsinii +
真刺水蚤科 Euchaetidae
精致真刺水蚤 Euchaeta concinna

+

+

+

+
光水蚤科 Lucicutiidae
黄角光水蚤 Lucicutia flavicornis
卵形光水蚤 L. ovalis


+

+
+


+
厚壳水蚤科 Scolecithricidae
绿齿厚壳水蚤 Scolecithrix nicobarica

+

+

+
平头水蚤科 Candaciidae
伯氏平头水蚤 Candacia bradyi

+

+
平头水蚤一种 Candacia. sp. +
角水蚤科 Pontellidae
汤氏长足水蚤 Calanopia thompsoni

+

+
椭形长足水蚤 C. elliptica + + +
双刺唇角水蚤 Labidocera bipinnata + + + +
小唇角水蚤 L. minuta + + + +
真刺唇角水蚤 L. euchaeta +
科氏唇角水蚤 L. kroyeri +
扩指简角水蚤 Pontellopsis inflatodigitata + +
瘦尾简角水蚤 P. tenuicauda + +
纺锤水蚤科 Acartiidae
太平洋纺锤水蚤 Acartia pacifica

+

+

+
刺尾纺锤水蚤 A. spinicauda +
红纺锤水蚤 A. erythraea + + +
小纺锤水蚤 A. negligens +
歪水蚤科 Tortanidae
钳形歪水蚤 Tortanus forcipatus

+

+

+

+
瘦歪水蚤 T. gracilis +
长腹剑水蚤科 Oithonidae
瘦长腹剑水蚤 Oithona tenuis

+
短角长腹剑水蚤 O. brevicornis + +
细长腹剑水蚤 O. attenuata +
大眼剑水蚤科 Corycaeidae
大眼剑水蚤一种 Corycaeus sp.


+


+
叶剑水蚤科 Sapphirinidae
黑点叶剑水蚤 Sapphirina nigromaculata

+
叶剑水蚤一种 Sapphirina sp. +
桨剑水蚤一种 Copilia sp. +
长猛水蚤科 Ectinosomatidae
挪威小星猛水蚤 Microsetella norvegica

+
怪水蚤科 Monstrillidae
怪水蚤一种 Monstrilla sp.

+
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