生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 639-650.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12134

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国草地生物多样性监测网络的指标体系及实施方案

万宏伟, 潘庆民, 白永飞*()   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-02 接受日期:2013-11-20 出版日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 白永飞 E-mail:yfbai@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目“中国生物多样性监测与变化机理研究(KSCX2-EW-Z-5)”;国家自然科学基金重点项目“蒙古高原草原生物多样性的格局与维持机制研究: 控制实验与野外调查相整合的多尺度途径(31030013)”

China grassland biodiversity monitoring network: indicators and implementation plan

Hongwei Wan, Qingmin Pan, Yongfei Bai*()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2013-06-02 Accepted:2013-11-20 Online:2013-11-20
  • Contact: Bai Yongfei E-mail:yfbai@ibcas.ac.cn

建立生物多样性监测网络是生物多样性保护和研究的基础, 在一些发达国家相关的工作已经比较完善, 我国森林生物多样性监测的网络也已经初具规模(http://www.cfbiodiv.org/), 而国家尺度上的草地生物多样性监测网络尚未建设。我国草地面积广, 野生动植物资源丰富, 对环境因子变化响应敏感且受人类活动干扰的影响较为强烈。建立国家尺度上的草地生物多样性监测网络, 对于揭示我国草地生物多样性资源现状, 研究其变化规律与机制, 监督和指导保护实践至关重要。作者在借鉴国外监测指标体系的基础上, 结合我国的草地资源和利用现状, 从整合政策和科学两方面的需求, 并考虑监测指标遴选及其空间异质性和检出概率, 结合拟探讨的具体科学问题, 提出了我国草地生物多样性监测与研究网络的指标体系和具体监测方案。该方案以草地植物多样性研究为核心, 兼顾草地生态系统健康和功能, 包含3类27项82个具体指标, 并给出了监测样地选取与设置的方案, 以及每个指标的野外监测方法与数据获取途径。最后, 作者以2012年在内蒙古的一个调查样地为例, 简要阐述了野外工作流程和注意事项, 并展示了部分野外调查结果。

关键词: 草原生态系统, 生物多样性, 监测网络, 指标体系, 监测方法

A biodiversity monitoring network is fundamental to biodiversity research and successful conservation practice. Many developed countries have established national or even continental scale biodiversity monitoring networks, covering a wide range of natural and semi-natural ecosystems. In China, the only biodiversity monitoring network that currently exists is the Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio, http://www.cfbiodiv.org/), which was founded in 2004. Grassland ecosystems, which cover 41.7% of the total land area of China, are most sensitive to environmental changes and have long been subject to overgrazing and other human disturbances, resulting in widespread deterioration of biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is essential, therefore, to establish a Chinese grassland biodiversity monitoring network to investigate the current status of Chinese grasslands, the pressure and/or drivers of changes in biodiversity, and to provide guidance on their restoration and conservation practices. Based on the successful experiences of other international biodiversity monitoring networks and the natural grassland conditions in China, we propose a national grassland biodiversity monitoring and research network, which includes the overarching objectives and scientific questions, indicators, methodology issues, and a case study in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

Key words: grassland ecosystem, biodiversity monitoring and research network, indicators, methodology

表1

草地生物多样性监测指标体系、测度尺度和数据获取途径"

序号
No.
监测项
Parameters
具体指标
Indicators
获取途径
Sources
空间尺度
Spatial scale/level
1 植物群落的物种组成
Species composition of plant community
植物物种名录 Plant species list 野外观测(样方)
Field observation (quadrats)
样地和景观尺度
Plot (1 ha) and landscape (25 ha)
2 植物物种多度 Abundance 物种的地上生物量和个体密度
Aboveground biomass and species density
景观尺度
Landscape
3 植物群落的盖度 Coverage 冠层盖度 Canopy coverage 景观尺度 Landscape
4 种-面积关系
Species-area relationship
物种名录 Species list 野外观测 Field observation 样地尺度
Plot
5 物种的点格局分析
Point pattern analysis
个体的空间位置 Position of individuals 野外观测 Field observation 样地尺度
Plot
6 植物功能性状
Plant functional traits
植株高度、茎叶比、比叶面积、单叶重、单叶面积、叶干物质含量、叶氮含量、叶磷含量
Height, leaf stem ratio, specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen content, and leaf phosphorus content
野外取样和室内分析
Field sampling and laboratory analysis
物种水平
Species
生长型、生活史策略、光合途径、固氮能力、克隆生长特性、根系结构和子叶类型 Growth form, life history strategies, photosynthetic pathways, nitrogen fixation ability, clonal growth characteristics, root structure and cotyledon types 文献检索 Literature 物种水平
Species
7 植物种库 Plant species pool 物种名录 Species list 野外观测(样带)
Field observations (transects)
景观尺度
Landscape
8 植物多样性 Plant diversity α、β、γ多样性, 物种丰富度、物种均匀度、物种多样性、功能多样性、谱系多样性
α, β, γ diversity, species richness, species evenness, species diversity, functional diversity, and phylogenetic diversity
基于本表1、2、6、7项计算获得 Calculated based on parameters 1, 2, 6, 7 样地、景观、区域到国家尺度
Plot, landscape, regional to national
9 哺乳动物多样性
Mammal diversity
珍稀、濒危动物的有无
Presence or absence of rare and endangered species
社会调研 Social investigation 区域尺度
Regional
10 微生物多样性
Microbial diversity
分类操作单元 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) 野外取样和室内分析
Field sampling and laboratory analysis
样地尺度 Plot
11 昆虫多样性 Insect diversity 种数和个体数 Number of species and individuals 野外取样和室内分析
Field sampling and laboratory analysis
样地尺度 Plot
12 鸟类的多样性 Bird diversity 种数和个体数 Number of species and individuals 野外观测 Field observation 景观尺度
Landscape
13 蝴蝶的多样性
Butterfly diversity
种数和个体数 Number of species and individuals 野外观测 Field observation 景观尺度
Landscape
14 蝗灾的状况 Locust outbreak 蝗虫个体的数量 Number of locust individuals 野外观测 Field observation 样地尺度 Plot
15 鼠害的状况 Rodent damage 鼠洞和土丘的密度 Density of rat holes and mounds 野外观测 Field observation 景观尺度
Landscape
16 净初级生产力
Net primary production
地上、地下净初级生产力
Aboveground and belowground net primary production
野外取样和室内分析
Field sampling and laboratory analysis
样地尺度 Plot
17 土壤碳、氮、磷储量
Soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus stocks
土壤容重、土壤碳氮磷含量
Soil bulk density and soil C, N, P content
野外取样和室内分析
Field sampling and laboratory analysis
样地尺度 Plot
18 水土保持力 Soil and water conservation 裸地面积、凋落物量及凋落物覆盖度、植被盖度 Bare soil proportion, litter mass and coverage, and vegetation coverage 野外观测、取样和室内分析
Field observation, sampling and laboratory analysis
样地和景观尺度
Plot and landscape scale
19 地下水供给
Groundwater supply
地下水水位及水质 Groundwater level and quality 野外测量、取样和室内分析
Field observation, sampling and laboratory analysis
景观到区域尺度Landscape to regional
20 气象因子 Meteorological factors 降水、气温、年潜在蒸散量、年实际蒸散量、年总太阳辐射、年光和有效辐射、积温
Precipitation, temperature, annual potential evapotranspiration, annual actual evapotranspiration, annual total solar radiation, annual effective radiation, and annual accumulated temperature
气象站实测、模型插值Meteorological station measurement and model interpolation 景观尺度
Landscape
21 其他环境变化因子
Other environmental change factors
大气CO2分压、氮沉降量、酸沉降量
CO2 partial pressure, acid and nitrogen deposition
地面实测、模型计算和预测
Direct measurement and Interpolation
景观到区域尺度Landscape toregional
22 土壤理化性质 Soil physical and chemical properties 土壤类型、质地、酸碱度、有机质含量、持水量
Soil type, texture, pH, organic matter content, water holding capacity
野外取样和室内分析
Field sampling and laboratory analysis
样地尺度 Plot
23 地形因素 Topography 坡向、坡度、地表起伏度、地表粗糙度
Aspect, slope, surface waviness and roughness
通过DEM数据计算获得
Derived from DEM data
样地和景观尺度
Plot and landscape
24 土地利用 Land use 土地利用类型、土地利用强度、土地利用历史
Types, intensity and history of land use
遥感、社调和文献检索
Remote sensing, social investigation and literature
景观到区域尺度Landscape to regional
家畜(牛马羊)粪便密度
Livestock (sheep, horse, cattle) manure density
野外观测 Field observation 景观尺度
Landscape
25 社会经济因素Socio-economic factors 人口数量、生活来源、人均收入
Population, source of income, per capita income
社会调研和年鉴统计资料检索 Social investigation and annual books 区域尺度 Regional
26 景观因素 Landscape factors 生境破碎化程度 Degree of habitat fragmentation 遥感 Remote sensing 区域尺度 Regional
27 地史进化因素
Geohistory and evolutionary factors
地质历史和进化历史
Geological and evolutionary history
文献检索、谱系分析
Literature, phylogenetic analysis
区域尺度 Regional

图1

单个监测样地上样线、样方、种-面积关系及点格局调查点的空间布局示意图。"

图2

2012年内蒙古草地生物多样性野外考察样点分布图"

图3

2012年内蒙古草原生态系统定位研究站(IMGERS)周边的一个监测样地内各植物物种的频度和排序"

图4

2012年内蒙古草原生态系统定位研究站(IMGERS)周边的一个监测样地植物物种基于调查取样面积对数转换值(a-c)和实际调查取样面积(d-f)的种-面积关系"

图5

2012年内蒙古草原生态系统定位研究站(IMGERS)周边的一个监测样地内蝴蝶(A)和鸟类(B)的种类、数量和排序"

1 Adler PB, Lauenroth WK (2003) The power of time: spatiotemporal scaling of species diversity.Ecology Letters, 6, 749-756.
2 Auerswald K, Wittmer MHOM, Bai Y, Yang H, Taube F, Susenbeth A, Schnyder H (2012) C4 abundance in an Inner Mongolia grassland system is driven by temperature- moisture interaction, not grazing pressure.Basic and Applied Ecology, 13, 67-75.
3 Blunden J, Arndt DS (2013) State of the climate in 2012.Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94, S1-S258.
4 Briske DD, Fuhlendorf SD, Smeins FE (2005) State-and- transition models, thresholds, and rangeland health: a synthesis of ecological concepts and perspectives.Rangeland Ecology and Management, 58, 1-10.
5 Chase JM, Leibold MA, Downing AL, Shurin JB (2000) The effects of productivity, herbivory, and plant species turnover in grassland food webs.Ecology, 81, 2485-2497.
6 Connell JH, Slatyer RO (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization.The American Naturalist, 111, 1119-1144.
7 Connor EF, McCoy ED (1979) The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship.The American Naturalist, 113, 791-833.
8 de Bello F, Lavorel S, Gerhold P, Reier Ü, Pärtel M (2010) A biodiversity monitoring framework for practical conservation of grasslands and shrublands.Biological Conservation, 143, 9-17.
9 Dengler J (2009) A flexible multi-scale approach for standardised recording of plant species richness patterns.Ecological Indicators, 9, 1169-1178.
10 Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国农业部兽医司), General Station of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary of the People's Republic of China (全国畜牧兽医总站) (1996) Rangeland Resources of China (中国草地资源). China Science and Technology Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
11 Fang JY (方精云), Wang XP (王襄平), Shen ZH (沈泽昊), Tang ZY (唐志尧), He JS (贺金生), Yu D (于丹), Jiang Y (江源), Wang ZH (王志恒), Zheng CY (郑成洋), Zhu JL (朱江玲), Guo ZD (郭兆迪) (2009) Methods and protocols for plant community inventory.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 17, 533-548. (in Chinese with English abstract)
12 Gao Q, Yu M, Yang X (2000) An analysis of sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems in China to climatic change using spatial simulation.Climate Change, 47, 373-400.
13 Gilbert G, Gibbons D, Evans J (1998) Bird Monitoring Methods: A Manual of Techniques for Key UK Species. RSPB, Sandy, UK.
14 Hintermann U, Weber D, Zangger A, Schmill J (2002) Biodiversity Monitoring in Switzerland BDM. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), Berne.
15 Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1983) Diversity of canopy trees in a neotropical forest and implications for conservation. In: Tropical Rain Forest: Ecology and Management (eds Sutton SL, Whitmore TC, Chadwick AC), pp. 25-41. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford.
16 Krebs CJ (1991) The experimental paradigm and long-term population studies.Ibis, 133, 3-8.
17 Lan ZC, Bai YF (2012) Testing mechanisms of N-enrichment-induced species loss in a semiarid Inner Mongolia grassland: critical thresholds and implications for long-term ecosystem responses.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367, 3125-3134.
18 Landsberg J, Crowley G (2004) Monitoring rangeland biodiversity: plants as indicators.Austral Ecology, 29, 59-77.
19 Ma KP (马克平) (2011) Assessing progress of biodiversity conservation with monitoring approach.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 19, 125-126. (in Chinese)
20 Noss RF (1990) Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach.Conservation Biology, 4, 355-364.
21 O'Brien EM (1993) Climatic gradients in woody plant species richness: towards an explanation based on an analysis of southern Africa's woody flora.Journal of Biogeography, 20, 181-198.
22 Olsen AR, Sedransk J, Edwards D, Gotway CA, Liggett W, Rathbun S, Reckhow KH, Young LJ (1999) Statistical issues for monitoring ecological and natural resources in the United States.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 54, 1-45.
23 Pellikka J, Rita H, Lindén H (2005) Monitoring wildlife richness: Finnish applications based on wildlife triangle censuses.Annales Zoologici Fennici, 42, 123-134.
24 Pereira HM, Ferrier S, Walters M, Geller GN, Jongman RHG, Scholes RJ, Bruford MW, Brummitt N, Butchart SHM, Cardoso AC, Coops NC, Dulloo E, Faith DP, Freyhof J, Gregory RD, Heip C, Höft R, Hurtt G, Jetz W, Karp DS, McGeoch MA, Obura D, Onoda Y, Pettorelli N, Reyers B, Sayre R, Scharlemann JPW, Stuart SN, Turak E, Walpole M, Wegmann M (2013) Essential biodiversity variables.Science, 339, 277-278.
25 Plattner M, Birrer S, Weber D (2004) Data quality in monitoring plant species richness in Switzerland.Community Ecology, 5, 135-143.
26 Ren HY, Schönbach P, Wan HW, Gierus M, Taube F (2012) Effects of grazing intensity and environmental factors on species composition and diversity in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.PLoS ONE, 7, e52180.
27 Whittaker RH (1972) Evolution and measurement of species diversity.Taxon, 21, 213-251.
28 Whittaker RJ, Willis KJ, Field R (2001) Scale and species richness: towards a general, hierarchical theory of species diversity.Journal of Biogeography, 28, 453-470.
29 Wittmer MHOM, Auerswald K, Bai Y, Schäufele R, Schnyder H (2010) Changes in the abundance of C3/C4 species of Inner Mongolia grassland: evidence from isotopic composition of soil and vegetation.Global Change Biology, 16, 605-616.
30 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) (2013) Biodiversity: the magic of our planet! How many species are we losing? (2013.11.13)
31 Wu JG, Loucks O (1992) Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China. U.S. National Research Council edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
32 Xiao X, Ojima DS, Parton WJ, Chen Z, Chen D (1995) Sensitivity of Inner Mongolia grasslands to climate change.Journal of Biogeography, 22, 643-648.
33 Yoccoz NG, Nichols JD, Boulinier T (2001) Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time.Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 446-453.
34 Yu FF, Price KP, Ellis J, Shi PJ (2003) Response of seasonal vegetation development to climatic variations in eastern central Asia.Remote Sensing of Environment, 87, 42-54.
[1] 李熠 唐志尧 闫昱晶 王科 蔡磊 贺金生 古松 姚一建. (2020) 物种分布模型在大型真菌红色名录评估及保护中的应用: 以冬虫夏草为例(大型真菌红色名录专辑). 生物多样性, 28(1): 0-0.
[2] 李永民, 吴孝兵. (2019) 安徽省两栖爬行动物名录修订. 生物多样性, 27(9): 1002-1011.
[3] 杨锐, 彭钦一, 曹越, 钟乐, 侯姝彧, 赵智聪, 黄澄. (2019) 中国生物多样性保护的变革性转变及路径. 生物多样性, 27(9): 1032-1040.
[4] 李顺, 邹亮, 宫一男, 杨海涛, 王天明, 冯利民, 葛剑平. (2019) 激光雷达技术在动物生态学领域的研究进展. 生物多样性, 27(9): 1021-1031.
[5] 符义稳, 田大栓, 汪金松, 牛书丽, 赵垦田. (2019) 内蒙古和青藏高原草原植物叶片与根系氮利用效率空间格局及影响因素. 植物生态学报, 43(7): 566-575.
[6] 曹宁, 薛达元. (2019) 论壮族传统文化对生物多样性的保护: 以广西靖西市为例. 生物多样性, 27(7): 728-734.
[7] 张渊媛. (2019) 生物多样性相关传统知识的国际保护及中国应对策略. 生物多样性, 27(7): 708-715.
[8] 杨云卉, 白可喻, Devra Jarvis, 龙春林. (2019) 西双版纳黄瓜农家品种及其传统知识. 生物多样性, 27(7): 743-748.
[9] 孙蓓蓓, 俞存根, 刘惠, 颜文超, 张文俊, 戴冬旭. (2019) 南麂列岛东侧海域春秋季虾蟹类生物多样性. 生物多样性, 27(7): 787-795.
[10] 丁陆彬, 马楠, 王国萍, 何思源, 闵庆文. (2019) 生物多样性相关传统知识研究热点与前沿的可视化分析. 生物多样性, 27(7): 716-727.
[11] 孔嘉鑫, 张昭臣, 张健. (2019) 基于多源遥感数据的植物物种分类与识别: 研究进展与展望. 生物多样性, 27(7): 796-812.
[12] 桂旭君, 练琚愉, 张入匀, 李艳朋, 沈浩, 倪云龙, 叶万辉. (2019) 鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林群落垂直结构及其物种多样性特征. 生物多样性, 27(6): 619-629.
[13] 张晓玲, 李亦超, 王芸芸, 蔡宏宇, 曾辉, 王志恒. (2019) 未来气候变化对不同国家茶适宜分布区的影响. 生物多样性, 27(6): 595-606.
[14] 邢圆, 吴小平, 欧阳珊, 张君倩, 徐靖, 银森录, 谢志才. (2019) 赣江水系大型底栖动物多样性与受胁因子初探. 生物多样性, 27(6): 648-657.
[15] 刘艳, 杨钰爽. (2019) 生物多样性保护优先区对重庆苔藓植物多样性保护的重要性. 生物多样性, 27(6): 677-682.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed