生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 375-382.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08022

• • 上一篇    下一篇

地球工程开展现状及其对生物多样性的影响

银森录, 李俊生, 吴晓莆, 李果, 徐靖*()   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-25 接受日期:2013-04-19 出版日期:2013-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐靖 E-mail:xujing263@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    环保公益性行业科研专项“气候变化下我国生物多样性保护优先区脆弱性评估与保护对策研究”(编号201209031);环境保护部《生物多样性公约》项目(编号1441100036)

Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity

Senlu Yin, Junsheng Li, Xiaopu Wu, Guo Li, Jing Xu*()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2013-01-25 Accepted:2013-04-19 Online:2013-05-20
  • Contact: Xu Jing E-mail:xujing263@163.com

与气候相关的地球工程(Climate-Related Geoengineering, 简称地球工程)是为了减缓气候变化及其影响的目的, 采取一系列大规模的人工技术和方法对地球环境或气候系统进行干预。地球工程的研究和开展受到越来越多的关注, 已经成为《生物多样性公约》讨论的焦点之一。地球工程项目在全球进行了不同程度的实验和推广, 与我国的利益密切相关。本文通过参与相关会议讨论以及对会议材料和相关文献的整理, 梳理了地球工程的定义和内涵、介绍了不同类型地球工程的开展现状, 分析了地球工程对生物多样性的潜在影响, 并阐述了《生物多样性公约》对地球工程的争论。研究表明: 地球工程主要通过改变区域或局地的气候和环境间接影响生物多样性, 由于目前对地球工程的影响缺乏足够了解, 对生物多样性有潜在影响的大规模地球工程将被禁止, 但节能减排工作的义务使地球工程仍然具有应用前景。笔者对未来地球工程发展提出了自己的意见, 认为地球工程技术的研究应兼顾高效、低廉和环境安全的标准, 开展地球工程活动应采取预先防范措施, 并探讨建立监管机制的可能性。

关键词: 生物多样性公约, 二氧化碳移除, 太阳辐射管理, 履约谈判

Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out to varying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoengineering may have on biodiversity. Arguments about geoengineering in the Convention on Biological Diversity are also discussed. Researches show that geoengineering programs mainly affect biodiversity by changing the local or regional climate and environment. Large scale geoengineering programs may be prohibited in future due to uncertainty over their potential impacts on biodiversity. However, the necessity for energy saving and obligations to reduce emissions will drive the progress of geoenginering. The future development of geoengineering is also examined. It is concluded that the techniques involved need to be of a high standard, highly efficient, low in cost and environmentally safe. Precautionary measures should be taken in the implementation of geoenginering related activities, and mechanisms for monitoring their effects should be thoroughly explored.

Key words: Convention on Biological Diversity, Carbon Dioxide Removal, Solar Radiation Management, Compliance negotiations

1 Bala G, Duffy PB, Taylor KE (2008) Impact of geoengineering schemes on the global hydrological cycle.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 7664-7669.
2 Boyd PW, Jickells T, Law CS, Blain S, Boyle EA, Buesseler KO, Coale KH, Cullen JJ, de Baar HJW, Follows M, Harvey M, Lancelot C, Levasseur M, Owens NPJ, Pollard R, Rivkin RB, Sarmiento J, Schoemann V, Smetacek V, Takeda S, Tsuda A, Turner S, Watson AJ (2007) Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993-2005: synthesis and future directions.Science, 315, 612-617.
3 Cao L, Caldeira K (2010) Can ocean iron fertilization mitigate ocean acidification? Climatic Change, 99, 303-311.
4 Crutzen PJ (2006) Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: a contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?Climatic Change, 77, 211-220.
5 ETC Group (2010) Geopiracy: The Case Against Geoengineering..
6 Fang JY (方精云), Chen AP (陈安平) (2001) Dynamic forest biomass carbon pools in China and their significance.Acta Botanica Sinica(植物学报), 43, 967-973. (in Chinese with English abstract)
7 GAO (2011) Technology Assessment: Climate Engineering: Technical Status, Future Directions and Potential Responses. U. S. Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC.
8 Global CCS Institute (2011) The Global Status of CCS: 2011. Canberra, Australia.
9 He XS (何绪生), Geng ZC (耿增超), She D (佘雕), Zhang BJ (张保健), Gao HY (高海英) (2011) Implications of production and agricultural utilization of biochar and its international dynamic.Transactions of the CSAE(农业工程学报), 27, 1-7. (in Chinese with English abstract)
10 Hoffert MI, Caldeira K, Benford G, Criswell DR, Green G, Herzog H, Jain AK, Kheshgi HS, Lackner KS, Lewis JS, Lightfoot HD, Manheimer W, Mankins JC, Mauel ME, Perkins LJ, Schlesinger ME, Volk T, Wigley TML (2002) Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: energy for a greenhouse planet.Science, 298, 981-987.
11 Hu HF (胡会峰), Liu GH (刘国华) (2006) Carbon sequestration of China’s National Natural Forest Protection Project.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 26, 291-296. (in Chinese with English abstract)
12 IISD (2012) Summary of the Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity..
13 IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.
14 IPCC (2011) IPCC Expert Meeting on Geoengineering..
15 Izrael YA, Zakharov VM, Petrov NN, Ryaboshapko AG, Ivanov VN, Savchenko AV, Andreev YV, Puzov YA, Danelyan BG, Kulyapin VP (2009) Field experiment on studying solar radiation passing through aerosol layers.Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, 34, 265-273.
16 Keith DW (2000) Geoengineering the climate: history and prospect.Annual Review of Energy and Environment, 25, 245-284.
17 Lehmann J, Rillig MC, Thies J, Masiello CA, Hockaday WC, Crowley D (2011) Biochar effects on soil biota: a review.Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 1812-1836.
18 Liu C (刘璨), Meng QH (孟庆华), Li YM (李育明), Lv JZ (吕金芝) (2005) A case study on ecological and socieconomic benefit evaluation of Sichuan Provincial Natural Forest Protective Project.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 25, 428-434. (in Chinese with English abstract)
19 Marchetti C (1977) On geoengineering and the CO2 problem.Climatic Change, 1, 59-68.
20 McCusker KE, Battisti DS, Bitz CM (2012) The climate response to stratospheric sulfate injections and implications for addressing climate emergencies.Journal of Climate, 25, 3096-3115.
21 Mitsch WJ, Jørgensen SE (1989) Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to Ecotechnology. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
22 Mu JL (穆景利), Han JB (韩建波), Huo CL (霍传林), Lin XZ (林新珍), Han GC (韩庚辰) (2011) Study progress on ocean iron fertilization.Marine Environmental Science(海洋环境科学), 30, 282-286. (in Chinese with English abstract)
23 Qiu YS (邱永松) (2013) Ocean fertilization and its potential for fishery development in the oligotrophic South China Sea.Journal of Fishery Sciences of China(中国水产科学), 20, 223-233. (in Chinese with English abstract)
24 Rasch PJ, Tilmes S, Turco RP, Robock A, Oman L, Chen CC, Stenchikov GL, Garcia RR (2008) An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 366, 4007-4037.
25 Russell LM, Rasch PJ, Mace GM, Jackson RB, Shepherd J, Liss P, Leinen M, Schimel D, Vaughan NE, Janetos AC, Boyd PW, Norby RJ, Caldeira K, merikanto J, Artaxo P, Melillo J, Morgan MG (2012) Ecosystem impacts of geoengineering: a review for developing a science plan.AMBIO, 41, 350-369.
26 Sala OE, Chapin FS III, Armesto JJ, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, Huber-Sanwald E, Huenneke LF, Jackson RB, Kinzig A, Leemans R, Lodge DM, Mooney HA, Oesterheld M, Poff NL, Sykes MT, Walker BH, Walker M, Wall DH (2000) Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100.Science, 287, 1770-1774.
27 SCBD (2009) Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Fertilization on Marine Biodiversity. Montreal, Technical Series No. 45.
28 SCBD (2010) Life in Harmony, into the Future. Decisions Adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at Its Tenth Meeting. Nagoya, Japan.
29 SCBD (2012a) Geoengineering in Relation to the Convention on Biological Diversity: Technical and Regulatory Matters. Montreal, Technical. Series No. 66.
30 SCBD (2012b) XI/20 Climate-related Geoengineering. Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the Convention of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. .
31 The Royal Society (2009) Geoengineering the Climate: Science, Governance and Uncertainty. The Royal Society, London.
32 Tukey JW, Alexander M, Bennett HS, Brady NC, Calhoun JC Jr, Geyer JC, Haagen-Smit AJ, Hackerman N, Hartgering JB, Pimentel D, Revelle R, Roddis LH, Stewart WH, Whittenberger JL (1965) Restoring the Quality of Our Environment. Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel, President’s Science Advisory Committee, Washington, D.C.
33 Vaughan NE, Lenton TM (2011) A review of climate geoengineering proposals.Climatic Change, 109, 745-790.
34 Wu J (吴军), Zhang CY (张称意), Xu HG (徐海根) (2011) Climate change issue in Convention on Biological Diversity: negotiations and focuses.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 19, 400-403. (in Chinese with English abstract)
35 Xie ZB (谢祖彬), Liu Q (刘琦), Xu YP (许燕萍), Zhu CW (朱春悟) (2011) Advances and perspectives of biochar research. Soils(土壤), 43, 857-861. (in Chinese with English abstract)
36 Yao ZY (姚展予) (2006) Review of weather modification research in Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences.Journal of Applied Meteorological Science(应用气象学报), 17, 786-795. (in Chinese with English abstract)
37 Zhang AF, Cui LQ, Pan GX, Li LQ, Hussain Q, Zhang XH, Zheng JW, Crowley D (2010) Effect of biochar amendment on yield and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice paddy from Tai Lake plain, China.Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 139, 469-475.
38 Zhang XL (张小力), Song YQ (宋豫秦) (2003) Efficiency of the Three-North Forest Shelterbelt Program.Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis(北京大学学报自然科学版) 39, 594-600. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] 赵阳,温源远. (2019) 《生物多样性公约》企业与生物多样性全球平台的发展情况及对中国的政策建议. 生物多样性, 27(3): 339-346.
[2] 廖建基, 黄浩, 李伟文, 王磊, 安丽娜. (2019) 国家管辖范围以外区域海洋生物多样性保护的新视域: 包括海洋保护区在内的划区管理工具. 生物多样性, 27(10): 1153-1161.
[3] 赵阳, 温源远, 杨礼荣, 李宏涛. (2018) 推动中国企业参与《生物多样性公约》全球伙伴关系的机制建设. 生物多样性, 26(11): 1249-1254.
[4] 邹玥屿, 傅钰琳, 杨礼荣, 万夏林, 王也, 刘纪新. (2017) 中国与COP15——负责任环境大国的路径选择. 生物多样性, 25(11): 1169-1175.
[5] 刘海鸥, 陈海君, 刘蕾, 晏薇, 薛达元. (2017) 重视女性在生物多样性保护中的作用. 生物多样性, 25(11): 1176-1181.
[6] 臧春鑫, 蔡蕾, 关潇, 徐靖, 李俊生. (2014) 《名古屋议定书》政府间委员会谈判进展回顾. 生物多样性, 22(5): 677-681.
[7] 武建勇, 薛达元, 赵富伟, 王艳杰. (2013) 从植物遗传资源透视《名古屋议定书》对中国的影响. 生物多样性, 21(6): 758-764.
[8] 薛达元, 武建勇, 赵富伟. (2012) 中国履行《生物多样性公约》二十年: 行动、进展与展望. 生物多样性, 20(5): 623-632.
[9] 成功, 王程, 薛达元. (2012) 国际政府间组织对传统知识议题的态度以及中国的对策建议. 生物多样性, 20(4): 505-511.
[10] 李果 吴晓莆 罗遵兰 李俊生. (2011) 构建我国生物多样性评价的指标体系. 生物多样性, 19(5): 497-504.
[11] 薛达元. (2011) 《名古屋议定书》的主要内容及其潜在影响. 生物多样性, 19(1): 113-119.
[12] 薛达元. (2007) 遗传资源获取与惠益分享: 背景、进展与挑战. 生物多样性, 15(5): 563-568.
[13] 周志华, 蒋志刚. (2007) 《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》与我国遗传资源管理对策. 生物多样性, 15(3): 319-328.
[14] 钱迎倩. (1998) 生物多样性的几个问题(续). 植物学报, 15(06): 1-18.
[15] 钱迎倩. (1998) 生物多样性的几个问题. 植物学报, 15(05): 1-15.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed