生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 732-737.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.06089

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上海市外来入侵物种

张晴柔1, 蒋赏1, 鞠瑞亭2,*(), 潘晓云1,*()   

  1. 1 复旦大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部实验室, 生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200433
    2 上海市园林科学研究所植物保护研究部, 上海 200232
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-06 接受日期:2013-10-25 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2013-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 鞠瑞亭,潘晓云
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(3013CB430400);国家自然科学基金(31070369, 31300467);上海市生态环境调查与评估(ZX31942);上海市科委基础研究重点项目(10JC1414100)

Diversity of invasive species in Shanghai

Qingrou Zhang1, Shang Jiang1, Ruiting Ju2,*(), Xiaoyun Pan1,*()   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
    2 Department of Plant Protection, Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute, Shanghai 200232
  • Received:2013-04-06 Accepted:2013-10-25 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2013-12-02
  • Contact: Ju Ruiting,Pan Xiaoyun

摘要:

对特定区域外来入侵种进行编目, 分析其基础生物学和生态学信息, 是了解外来入侵种区域入侵过程及制定对应管理策略的先决条件。作者在前人研究的基础上建立了上海市外来入侵种的最新名录, 共计212种, 分属63目87科。在类群构成上, 植物有138种(约占总数的65%)、动物61种(约29%)、微生物13种(约6%)。植物和动物外来入侵种都具有明显的优势类群。在物种来源上, 这些物种主要来源于美洲(108种, 约占总数的51%)。在物种引入途径上, 约有52%的植物属于有意引入, 有82%的动物属于无意引入。在入侵的生境类型上, 约有93%的入侵植物分布于“高养分、高干扰”类型的生境; 约有76%的入侵动物种分布于仓储环境和田地。本文提供的外来入侵物种及其生物学、生态学特征信息, 可为制定上海外来种相关管理和控制策略提供参考。

关键词: 生物多样性, 入侵种, 外来物种管理, 生物编目

Abstract:

A list of invasive alien species (IAS) is essential for initiating an analysis of the biological and ecological traits of such species and for improving our understanding of patterns of biological invasions. An inventory of IAS in Shanghai was prepared through a literature survey. A total of 212 IAS belonging to 63 orders and 87 families were recorded. Of these, 65% were plants, 29% were animals, and the rest were microorganisms. Dominant groups could be distinguished in both plant and animal groups. Species originating from the Americas made up 51% of the total, while 52% of plant species were introduced intentionally and 82% of animal species unintentionally. Of the invasive plants, 93% are distributed in highly disturbed habitats with rich resources, whereas 76% of invasive animals occur in storehouses and farmlands. The present information on diversity and ecological features of IAS is crucial for designing management strategies against the negative impacts of such species in Shanghai.

Key words: biodiversity, invasive alien species, management strategies against the invasive alien species, bioinventory