生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (3): 354-359.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.06240

所属专题: 传粉生物学:理论探讨与初步实践

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

毛乌素沙地固沙植物披针叶黄华主要传粉昆虫及其访花行为

胡红岩, 陈欢, 徐环李*   

  1. 中国农业大学昆虫学系, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-23 修回日期:2012-03-01 出版日期:2012-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐环李 E-mail:Hanabati@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:

    国家自然科学基金;公益性行业(农业)科研专项

Main pollinators and their foraging behaviors on a sand-fixing legume, Thermopsis lanceolata, in Mu Us Sandland

Hongyan Hu, Huan Chen, Huanli Xu*   

  1. Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2011-12-23 Revised:2012-03-01 Online:2012-05-20
  • Contact: Huanli Xu E-mail:Hanabati@cau.edu.cn

披针叶黄华(Thermopsis lanceolata)是我国西部地区早春重要野生蜜源植物, 也是一种重要的固沙植物, 然而对其繁殖特性的研究甚少。本文在系统调查披针叶黄华的访花昆虫基础上, 确定其主要传粉昆虫种类、访花行为、传粉过程以及日活动规律, 以期揭示主要访花者行为对其有性繁殖的影响。作者在内蒙古毛乌素沙地设置1个10 m×10 m的样方, 于2010和2011年在披针叶黄华盛花期, 采用目测、拍照和摄像等方式对传粉昆虫进行观测, 记录样方内主要访花昆虫种类、数量、访花行为及日活动规律。研究表明, 大和切叶蜂(Megachile japonica)和戎拟孔蜂(Hoplitis princeps)是披针叶黄华的主要传粉者, 但两种昆虫的访花频率存在显著差异; 晴天时, 大和切叶蜂在9:00–13:00和16:00–18:00出现两个活动高峰, 而戎拟孔蜂只在11:30–16:30出现1个活动高峰, 两种蜂的访花活动高峰期存在互补关系。大和切叶蜂访花同时具有盗蜜行为, 但其盗蜜行为对披针叶黄华的结籽率没有显著影响。根据种群数量、访花频率综合判断, 大和切叶蜂是披针叶黄华优势传粉蜂。

Thermopsis lanceolata is sand-fixing plant that plays an important role as a spring nectar source in northeastern China; however, little is known about its reproductive characteristics. To ascertain the major pollinators of T. lanceolata, we identified foraging behaviors, pollination process, activity rhythm of floral visitors and the effect of nectar robbers on the seed setting were investigated in Mu Us Sandland, Inner Mongolia. We used photo, video and visual measurement to observe floral visitors in a 10 m × 10 m quadrat. We recorded the species, pollinating behaviors and visiting frequency of all pollinators from 06:00 hours until 19:00 hours in sunny days. Based on visitation frequencies and pollen amounts carried on the body, two bee species, Megachile japonica and Hoplitis princeps were identified as the primary pollinators of T. lanceolata., but visiting frequencies between the two species were significantly different. Daily activity of M. japonica was bimodal with diurnal foraging activities during 9:00–13:00 and 16:00–18:00 hours, whereas daily activity of H. princeps was of unimodal type from 11:30 to 16:30 hours. We also noted nectar robbing behaviors by M. japonica due to the presence of nectar acquisition holes at the base of the flower of T. lanceolata, but found that these behaviors had no effect on seed setting. Pollinator activity peaks indicate a complementary relationship between M. japonica and H. princeps. Our observations of visiting frequencies suggest that M. japonica was a dominant pollinator for T. lanceolata.

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