生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (4): 424-431.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08325

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

干扰、地形和土壤对温州入侵植物分布的影响

高末1,2, 胡仁勇2, 陈贤兴2, 李伟成3, 丁炳扬2*   

  1. 1杭州师范大学生命与环境科学学院, 杭州 310036
    2温州大学生命与环境科学学院, 温州 325035
    3国家林业局竹子研究中心, 杭州 310012
  • 收稿日期:2010-12-28 修回日期:2011-03-09 出版日期:2011-07-20 发布日期:2011-07-29
  • 通讯作者: 丁炳扬
  • 基金资助:

    温州市科技计划项目;浙江省科技计划重点项目

Effects of disturbance, topography, and soil conditions on the distribution of invasive plants in Wenzhou

Mo Gao1,2, Renyong Hu2, Xianxing Chen2, Weicheng Li3, Bingyang Ding2*   

  1. 1Department of Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036

    2Department of Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035

    3China National Bamboo Research Center, Hangzhou 310012
  • Received:2010-12-28 Revised:2011-03-09 Online:2011-07-20 Published:2011-07-29
  • Contact: Bingyang Ding

摘要: 分析自然因子和人为活动对入侵植物分布的影响, 有助于预测外来植物的入侵。本研究采用路线踏查和样地调查相结合的方法, 对温州地区外来入侵植物的组成和分布进行3次调查, 同时记录样地土壤类型、地形、人为干扰等环境因子。使用典范对应分析(canonical correspondence analysis)进行排序, 分析外来植物的分布与环境因子之间的相关性以及不同因子对物种分布的影响; 利用方差分析比较外来入侵植物物种数和多度在不同地点间的差异, 及造成这种差异的主要影响因子。结果表明: (1)目前温州市外来入侵植物共64种, 隶属于28科51属; 从生活型上来看, 以一、二年生双子叶植物为主, 占70%以上, 原产地以美洲为主, 占68.8%。(2)各个区县间的物种分布存在显著差异(P = 0.000), 以乐清市的种类最多, 有51种, 其次是苍南县(43种), 最少的为洞头县(有27种)。(3)典范对应分析结果显示, 温州地区外来入侵植物分布格局主要受交通频度、聚居程度和地形的影响。(4)广布种和常见种的分布受到各个环境因子的影响差别不大, 而局限种和散布种的分布则明显受交通频度、地形两个因子的制约。(5)成功入侵的植物, 在侵入阶段更多的受人为活动的影响, 定居阶段则是环境因子起更大作用, 最后是否成功扩散并对入侵地造成危害则主要由植物自身的生物学特性决定。

Abstract: In order to understand factors regulating the distribution of invasive plants in Wenzhou, we used route-checking and fixed-plot sampling to evaluate the distribution of invasive species and associated agro-type, topographical and anthropological factors. Relationships between the distribution of invasive plants and the environmental factors were assessed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Analysis of vari-ance was used to test for differences in species composition and abundances of the invasive plants among different parts of the region, and to explore the major factors responsible for the differences. Our investiga-tions showed: (1) 64 invasive plant species from 28 families and 51 genera were found in Wenzhou. More than 70% of those species were either annual or biennial dicotyledonous, and 68.8% of them were of Ameri-can origin. (2) The number of invasive plant species differed among the 11 investigated counties of the re-gion, among which Yueqing County had the highest number of species (51 spp.), followed by Cangnan (43 spp.), while Dongtou had the fewest (27 spp.). (3) The distribution of exotic invasive plants in Wenzhou was most affected by traffic frequency, the degree of settlement, and landform type. (4) The distribution of com-mon eurychoric species was not affected strongly by any single environmental factor. The distribution of rare species with limited distributions, however, was affected significantly by both traffic frequency and landform; (5) Human activities played an important role during the initial stage of the invasion for the success-fully invaded plants. Environmental factors were critical to the invading plants during the establishment stage of the invasion, while their biological characteristics had the major effect on their successful spread and on the extent of the damage they would cause in the areas they invaded.