生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 256-261.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020053

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新型冠状病毒肺炎对野生动物疫病立法执法与管理的启迪

蒋志刚1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学研究中心, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2020-02-20 发布日期:2020-03-02
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA19050204)

Insights on the legislation, law enforcement and management of zoonosis from the epidemic of new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19)

Jiang Zhigang1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-03-02
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang

摘要:

进入21世纪以来, 中国爆发了SARS与新型冠状病毒肺炎两场重大传染病。研究表明这两场传染病的疫源可能是蝙蝠, 也可能还有其他中间宿主动物, 人们纷纷要求立法禁止食用野生动物。事实上, 国家已经立法禁止食用受法律保护的和非法来源的野生动物, 市场调查也未发现有蝙蝠出售。那么, SARS病毒与新型冠状病毒是如何从野生动物传到人类的? 我们应当从这两场疫病中吸取哪些教训? 除了全面禁止非法食用野生动物外, 笔者建议: (1)完善野生动物疫病立法, 填补立法空缺。修订现有法律关于野生动物疫病自然疫源地建设项目的管理条款。(2)设立常设机构, 覆盖野生动物疫病调查监测、人与野生动物接触界面检疫监管、易感人群免疫、法律与科学知识普及和疾病防治整个流行病环节, 实现野生动物疫病的早预防、早发现、早治疗, 切实保证社会公共卫生安全。(3)建立野生动物疫病的防控机制, 定期鉴别携带病原的野生动物, 加强对蝙蝠的监测, 发布野生动物疫源疫病控制红线, 加强野生动物疫病执法和预防管理。(4)完善动物生产管理、动物产品及其销售市场的检疫程序。改革人们现场宰杀动物、追求食用鲜活动物食品的习惯。

关键词: 野生动物, 饮食习惯, 市场管理, 野生动物疫病监测, 检疫, 防疫, 野生动物疫病控制红线, 公共卫生安全

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the 21st century, two major infectious diseases, SARS and new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), have shocked China as well as the world. Studies suggested bats, as well as pangolins may be the vectors of both epidemics, prompting calls for a ban on eating wild animals. In fact, the country has already legislated against the consumption of legally protected and illegally sourced wild animals. Market survey found no bats for sale in those markets in 16 major Chinese megacities after SARS. Therefore, how did SARS-CoV and the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) spread from wild animals to humans? What lessons should we learn from these two epidemics? Besides a total ban on consumption wild animal meets from illegal source, I suggest to perfect the legislation of zoonosis and to fill the gaps in the laws concern with the prevention of zoonosis; to amend the provisions of the existing law governing the managing of zoonosis contaminated areas. A permanent institution should be set up to cover the whole process of wildlife epidemic investigation and monitoring, human-wildlife interface, quarantine, immunization of susceptible populations, popularization of law and scientific knowledge, thus to realize early prevention, early detection and early treatment of zoonosis to ensure public health security. I also recommend that to establish a mechanism for the prevention and control of zoonosis, to identify wildlife hosts of zoonosis pathogens, to strengthen bat monitoring, and to issue red lines for the control of zoonosis. Additionally, we shall strengthen law enforcement to prevent zoonosis; improve animal production management, marketing, and quarantine procedures. I urge people to change their habit of pursuing fresh animal foods by killing animals on site in markets.

Key words: wild animals, eating habits, market management, monitoring of zoonosis, zoonosis quarantine, epidemic prevention, the Red Line for Zoonosis Control, public health safety