生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 385-400.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020045

• 综述 • 上一篇    

14种中国典型极小种群野生植物繁育特性和人工繁殖研究进展

邓莎1,2,吴艳妮1,2,吴坤林1,房林1,李琳1,曾宋君1,3,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院华南植物园华南农业植物分子分析与遗传改良重点实验室, 广州 510650
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院华南植物园广东省应用植物学重点实验室, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-17 接受日期:2020-04-27 出版日期:2020-03-20 发布日期:2020-04-30
  • 通讯作者: 曾宋君
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503100);“极小种群野生植物扩繁技术研究与示范”课题(2016YFC0503104);和中国科学院战略生物资源服务网络计划植物种质资源创新项目(kfj-brsn-2018-6-005)

Breeding characteristics and artificial propagation of 14 species of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP) in China

Sha Deng1,2,Yanni Wu1,2,Kunlin Wu1,Lin Fang1,Lin Li1,Songjun Zeng1,3,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of South China Agricultural Plant Molecular Analysis and Gene Improvement, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2020-02-17 Accepted:2020-04-27 Online:2020-03-20 Published:2020-04-30
  • Contact: Songjun Zeng

摘要:

繁殖是植物种群更新与维持的重要环节。包括极小种群野生植物在内的受威胁物种, 其濒危原因是在长期演化过程中自身繁育力的衰退、生活力的下降等内在因素和人类的过度采挖和生境的破坏等外在因素共同作用的结果。对极小种群野生植物进行高效的人工繁殖, 能扩大种群数量并应用于迁地保护、自然回归和满足商品市场的需求, 有利于其种质资源的保护和可持续利用。为了保持物种的遗传多样性, 采用种子繁殖育苗是有效的方法, 扦插、嫁接和组织培养技术等无性繁殖方法则可用于对难以用种子繁殖的种类进行快速繁殖。本文对14种中国典型极小种群野生植物的繁殖特性和已有的人工繁殖方法进行了综述, 并简要介绍在其种苗繁殖研究方面取得的进展。其中利用播种繁殖成功的物种有12种, 共繁殖230,000株种苗; 利用扦插繁殖成功的物种有5种, 共繁殖33,100株种苗; 华盖木(Manglietiastrum sinicum)、河北梨(Pyrus hopeiensis)和黄梅秤锤树(Sinojackia huangmeiensis)采用嫁接繁殖出了2,415株种苗; 9个物种的组织培养技术获得成功, 共繁殖了24,850株种苗。这些种苗有些已应用于迁地保护和自然回归。上述研究结果为这14种极小种群野生植物的保护和利用提供了理论和技术基础, 也能为其他极小种群野生植物的保护和利用提供参考。

关键词: 极小种群野生植物, 播种, 扦插, 嫁接, 组织培养

Abstract:

Reproduction is an important part of plant population renewal and maintenance. Threatened species including the Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), are the result of a combination of internal factors, such as declines in reproductive ability and evolutionary longevity, and external factors, such as artificial over-harvesting and habitat destruction. Efficient artificial reproduction of WPESP can be used for ex situ conservation, reintroduction, and, in some cases, meet the demands of the commodities market, which underscores the need for protection and sustainable use of their germplasm. Seed propagation is the most effective method for maintaining genetic diversity in these speices. However, cutting, grafting and tissue culture are effective supplements for these species that are especially difficult to propagate from seed. Here, we report on the breeding characteristics and propagation methods of 14 typical speices of WPESP selected by our National Key Research Projects of China, and the progress of seedling propagation. A total of 230,000 seedlings from 12 species were produced via sowing, 33,100 seedlings from 5 species via cutting, 2,415 seedlings from 3 species including Manglietiastrum sinicum, Pyrus hopeiensis and Sinojackia huangmeiensis via grafting, 24,850 plantlets from 9 species via tissue culture. The results of this study provide a basis for the protection and use of these 14 species, providing a reference for other WPESP in China.

Key words: Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), sowing, cutting, grafting, tissue culture