生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 621-629.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019401

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球中华鲎资源保护现状及对策建议

朱俊华1, 吴宙1, 2, 冯炳斌1, 3, 邓帅帅1, 甄文全1, 廖永岩1, 颉晓勇4, Kit Yue Kwan1, *()   

  1. 1 广西北部湾海洋生物多样性养护重点实验室, 北部湾大学海洋学院, 广西钦州 535011
    2 浙江海洋大学国家海洋设施养殖工程技术研究中心, 浙江舟山 316022
    3 南宁师范大学地理科学与规划学院, 南宁 530311
    4 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所, 广州 510300
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-18 接受日期:2020-01-24 出版日期:2020-05-20
  • 通讯作者: Kit Yue Kwan E-mail:kityuekwan@bbgu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41706183);广西自然科学基金联合资助培育项目(2019JJA150098);广西自然科学基金(2017GXNSFBA198181);广西高校引进海外高层次人才“百人计划”;广西八桂青年学者人才专项

Global conservation of Tachypleus tridentatus: Present status and recommendations

Junhua Zhu1, Zhou Wu1, 2, Bingbin Feng1, 3, Shuaishuai Deng1, Wenquan Zhen1, Yongyan Liao1, Xiaoyong Xie4, Kit Yue Kwan1, *()   

  1. 1 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, College of Marine Sciences, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, Guangxi 535011
    2 National Engineering Research Center for Marine Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316022
    3 School of Geography and Planning, Nanning Normal University, Nanning 530311
    4 South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300
  • Received:2019-12-18 Accepted:2020-01-24 Online:2020-05-20
  • Contact: Kit Yue Kwan E-mail:kityuekwan@bbgu.edu.cn

鲎是古老的海洋节肢动物。中华鲎(Tachypleus tridentatus)是世界现存4种鲎中体型最大的一种, 是河口生态系统的标志物种, 同时其血液被用于生产医用检验试剂――鲎试剂。中华鲎的自然地理分布范围相当狭窄, 仅局限于日本濑户内海向南延伸至印度尼西亚爪哇岛北岸以北的太平洋西岸海域, 其中在中国东岸和日本南部海域的历史产量较高。自20世纪50年代以来中华鲎种群数量出现了显著减少, 2019年中华鲎在IUCN红色名录中的濒危等级正式更新为濒危(EN), 明确了中华鲎资源呈现全球性衰退的状态, 究其原因可归纳为鲎生境破坏和过度捕捞两个方面。在开展鲎资源保护的实践工作中, 作者深刻反思当前鲎资源保护在海洋保护区划定、增殖放流及科普和野生动物保护法宣传中存在的问题并提出相应建议, 包括加快完善种群基线数据, 制定标准化种群和生境基线监测指南, 构建科学放流体系等, 以期推进全球范围内的中华鲎资源保护与科学管理。

关键词: 鲎, 濒危物种, 种群趋势, 海洋保护地, 增殖放流

Horseshoe crabs are an ancient group of marine arthropods. The Chinese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) is the largest among the four extant species. Tachypleus tridentatus is regarded as the indicator species of estuarine ecosystems. Meanwhile, its blood is used to manufacture biomedical testing kits, i.e., Tachypleus amebocyte lysate. The geographic distribution of T. tridentatus is constrained to the western Pacific Ocean, ranging from the Seto Inland Sea of Japan southwards to the North Jawa waters. A high historical population size of T. tridentatus was recorded in eastern China and southern Japan. Tachypleus tridentatus population decline has become apparent since the 1950s, and the species has been upgraded to “Endangered (EN)” under the IUCN Red List in 2019, depicting its global declining trend. Habitat destruction and overfishing are identified as the primary threats. We reexamined current conservation measures targeting T. tridentatus, including marine protected area establishment, captive breeding and restocking, and awareness programs and regulations. We provide recommendations to enhance the conservation and management of global T. tridentatus populations through: (1) expediting population baseline data collection; (2) developing standards for population/habitat monitoring; and (3) establishing scientifically sound restocking programs.

Key words: horseshoe crab, threatened species, population trend, marine protected area, captive breeding and restocking

表1

近十年在中国沿岸放流中华鲎的报道"

放流日期
Date of
release
放流选址
Site selection for release
鲎生长阶段
Growth stage of horseshoe crab
数量
Number
组织单位
Organization(s)
2019.11 广东湛江遂溪县 Suixi County, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong 1龄
1st instar
460,000 北部湾大学、广西大学 Beibu Gulf University and Guangxi University
2019.08 福建泉州丰泽滨海公园 Fengze Seaside Park, Quanzhou City, Fujian 1龄
1st instar
5,000 福建省淡水水产研究所、华侨大学、集美大学等 Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Fujian, Huaqiao University, Jimei University etc.
2019.08 广东汕头潮南区田心湾 Tianxin Bay, Chaonan District, Shantou City, Guangdong 成年
Adult
315 广东省汕头市潮南区海洋与渔业局 Marine and Fishery Bureau of Chaonan District, Shantou City, Guangdong Province
2019.06 广西防城港 Fangchenggang City, Guangxi 1龄
1st instar
60,000 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
2018.11 广西北海 Beihai City, Guangxi 成年
Adult
2,000 湛江博康海洋生物有限公司北海分公司 Zhanjiang Bokang Marine Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Beihai
2018.10 广西钦州三娘湾 Sanniang Bay, Qinzhou City, Guangxi 1龄
1st instar
5,170,000 北部湾大学、广西大学 Beibu Gulf University and Guangxi University
2018.08 广西防城港 Fangchenggang City, Guangxi 1龄
1st instar
30,000 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
2018.06 福建平潭敖东镇山歧澳中华鲎保护区 Shanqi’ao Chinese Horseshoe Crab Protected Area, Aodong Town, Pingtan City, Fujian 1龄
1st instar
215,730 平潭综合实验区农村发展局 Rural Development Bureau of Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Area
2018.05 广东湛江东海岛东南码头 Dongnan Pier, Donghai Island, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong 1龄
1st instar
77,000 湛江市海洋与渔业局 Zhanjiang Marine and Fishery Bureau
2017.07 广西北海侨港镇南部水域 Southern waters of Qiaogang Town , Beihai City, Guangxi 1龄
1st instar
550,000 北海市海洋与渔业局 Beihai Marine and Fishery Bureau
2017.07 福建福州市海域 Fuzhou City waters, Fujian 1龄
1st instar
134,600 福州市海洋与渔业局 Fuzhou Marine and Fishery Bureau
2017.06 广东阳江东平镇南鹏岛海域 Nanpeng Island waters, Dongping Town, Yangjiang City, Guangdong 1龄
1st instar
1,000 阳江市海洋与渔业局 Yangjiang Marine and Fishery Bureau
2017.02 广东湛江东海岛东南码头 Dongnan Pier, Donghai Island, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong 1龄
1st instar
100,000 湛江市海洋与渔业局 Zhanjiang Marine and Fishery Bureau
2015.06 福建福州长乐区五显鼻渔港码头外海域 Coastal waters outside Wuxianbi Fish Pier, Changle District, Fuzhou City, Fujian 1龄
1st instar
81,000 福州市海洋与渔业局 Fuzhou Marine and Fishery Bureau
2015.06 福建闽江口川石岛海域 Chuanshi Island waters, Minjiang Estuary, Fujian 1龄
1st instar
110,000 福建省海洋渔业厅 Administration of Ocean and Fisheries of Fujian Province
2015.05 广东湛江东海岛东南码头 Southeast Pier, Donghai Island, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong 1龄
1st instar
200,000 湛江市相关政府部门 Zhanjiang local governments
2014.05 福建金门烈屿乡埔头 Putou, Lieyuxiang Village, Kinmen County, Fujian 1龄
1st instar
20,000 金门县政府 Kinmen County Government
2013.05 广东汕头南澳县前江港务码头 Qianjiang Wharf, Nan’ao County, Shantou City, Guangdong 不明
Unknown
不明
Unknown
不明
Unknown
2010.06 广东阳江海陵岛大角湾畔 Dajiao Bayside, Hailing Island, Yangjiang City, Guangdong 成年
Adult
200 国家农业农村部、广东省政府 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China and People’s Government of Guangdong Province
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