生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (7): 787-795.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019400

• 研究报告:植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

广东兰科植物多样性保育现状

张玲玲, 刘子玥, 王瑞江*()   

  1. 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-18 接受日期:2020-07-15 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2020-09-29
  • 通讯作者: 王瑞江
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: wangrj@scbg.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家林业和草原局广东省兰科植物资源调查项目;国家科学技术部、财政部国家重要野生植物种质资源库平台项目

The conservation status of orchids in Guangdong Province

Lingling Zhang, Ziyue Liu, Ruijiang Wang*()   

  1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2019-12-18 Accepted:2020-07-15 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-09-29
  • Contact: Ruijiang Wang

摘要:

为了使广东省的兰科植物及其遗传多样性得到有效的保育, 保存我国重要野生植物资源, 在2017-2019年间, 采用样线和样地相结合的调查手段、专家快速评估和野外调查相结合的评估技术以及Wilcoxon符号秩检验和Friedman检验的统计方法, 对广东省自然分布的兰科植物进行了全面的调查和濒危等级评估, 并对其在广东省自然保护区中的就地保育情况和全国植物园中的迁地保育情况进行了综合分析。结果表明, 广东省分布有兰科植物80属235种, 其中广东特有种20种; 广东兰科植物受威胁物种有186种, 其中极危11种、濒危114种、易危61种; 就地保育的兰科植物有111种, 迁地保育的兰科植物有156种, 就地和迁地共同保育的兰科植物有96种, 保育的有效程度较低; 另外, 就地、迁地、就地和迁地共同保育的兰科植物之间没有体现出明显的差异, 保育工作缺乏选择性和针对性。基于此, 我们建议广东兰科植物的保育工作应重视基础数据的收集和持续的野外监测、提高保育物种的数量、优化迁地保育物种的选择性和针对性、完善迁地保育和就地保育之间的协同性, 同时也应重视立法和公众教育, 并构建广东兰科植物保育的网络系统。

关键词: 珍稀濒危植物, 就地保育, 迁地保育, 植物园

Abstract:

To ensure Guangdong orchids and the genetic diversity well conserved, we conducted a comprehensive survey of orchids throughout the Guangdong Province and assessed their endangered species categories between 2017 and 2019. Botanical gardens were also surveyed in addition to nature reserves in the province to evaluate ex situ conservation versus in situ conservation of orchids, respectively. We performed route and plot inventories and identified the endangered species category for each orchid species, and then compared which orchid species were present under in situ conservation ex situ conservation, or both. Our results indicate that: (1) There are 235 orchid species belonging to 80 genera in Guangdong Province, among which 20 species are endemic. (2) 186 orchid species are threatened species, including 11 Critically Endangered species, 114 Endangered species, and 61 Vulnerable species. (3) 111 orchid species are conserved in nature reserves, 156 species in botanical gardens, and 96 species in both nature reserves and botanical gardens, indicating low conservation efficiency. (4) There was not a significant difference among orchid species under in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, or both, suggesting that the conservation work of orchids lacks selectivity. Thus, we suggest that the conservation efforts of orchids in Guangdong Province should focus on basic data collection and continuous field monitoring. Furthermore, future work should aim to increase the number of conserved orchid species, to be more selective when identifying orchid species for ex situ conservation, and to improve the coordination between ex situ conservation and in situ conservation. Successful orchid conservation must also involve legislation, public education, and integration of an orchid conservation network in Guangdong Province.

Key words: rare and endangered plants, in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, botanical garden