生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (7): 796-805.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019394

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

利用红外相机研究白冠长尾雉日活动节律与人为干扰的关系

石江艳1, 杨海2, 华俊钦1, 赵玉泽1, 李建强1, 徐基良1,*()   

  1. 1 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院, 北京 100083
    2 河南连康山国家级自然保护区, 河南新县 465500
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-12 接受日期:2020-04-22 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2020-09-29
  • 通讯作者: 徐基良
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: xujiliang@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31872240);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503200)

The relationship between the diurnal activity rhythm of Reeves’s pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and human disturbance revealed by camera trapping

Jiangyan Shi1, Hai Yang2, Junqin Hua1, Yuze Zhao1, Jianqiang Li1, Jiliang Xu1,*()   

  1. 1 School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2 Liankangshan National Nature Reserve, Xinxian, Henan 465500
  • Received:2019-12-12 Accepted:2020-04-22 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-09-29
  • Contact: Jiliang Xu

摘要:

白冠长尾雉(Syrmaticus reevesii)为我国特有珍稀濒危鸟类, 其面临的人为干扰压力日趋严重。为更好地了解白冠长尾雉对不同人为干扰强度的响应, 我们于2018年3月至2019年4月, 在其东部分布区的河南连康山国家级自然保护区(连康山)、湖北中华山鸟类省级自然保护区(中华山)和湖北平靖关村及三潭风景名胜区(平靖关), 利用红外相机技术研究了其日活动节律, 并借助重叠系数测算了其与人为干扰在时间上的重叠程度以及与人为干扰之间的关系。结果表明, 连康山的人为干扰强度最高, 而中华山和平靖关的人为干扰强度接近且均低于连康山。雄性白冠长尾雉繁殖期和非繁殖期的日活动节律在三地之间的差异均不显著; 雌性白冠长尾雉繁殖期日活动节律在平靖关与连康山之间存在显著差异, 而非繁殖期日活动节律在中华山与连康山之间、平靖关与连康山之间均存在显著差异。各地白冠长尾雉日活动高峰和人为干扰出现的高峰也存在差异, 呈现出较为明显的错峰活动现象, 其中在人为干扰最强的连康山, 白冠长尾雉的活动与人为干扰的重叠程度最低。这些结果表明白冠长尾雉的日活动节律可能受人为干扰的影响, 且在行为方面表现出一定的可塑性, 它们可以通过调整日活动节律来适应人为干扰。

关键词: 白冠长尾雉, 日活动节律, 人为干扰, 循环分布, 行为可塑性

Abstract:

As a rare species endemic to China, Reeves’s pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) is facing increasing pressure from human disturbance. To better understand how Reeves’s pheasant responds to human disturbances, we studied the pheasant’s diurnal activity rhythm in three areas in its eastern distribution region: Liankang Mountain National Nature Reserve in Henan (hereafter Liankang Mountain), Zhonghua Mountain Birds Provincial Nature Reserve in Hubei (hereafter Zhonghua Mountain), and Pingjingguan Village and Santan Scenic Area in Hubei (hereafter Pingjingguan). From March 2018 to April 2019, we used camera trapping to monitor both the diurnal activity rhythm of Reeves’s pheasant and the degree of human disturbance. We calculated the overlapping coefficient between anthropogenic and pheasant activity. The results indicated that Liankang Mountain had a more intense degree of human disturbance, while Zhonghua Mountain and Pingjingguan exhibited a similar intensity of human disturbance. Male Reeves’s pheasants’ diurnal activity rhythm was similar in all three experimental areas in both breeding and non-breeding seasons. Females’ diurnal activity rhythm during non-breeding season differed significantly between Zhonghua Mountain and Liankang Mountain, while it differed significantly in both breeding and non-breeding seasons between Pingjingguan and Liankang Mountain. The activity peak of Reeves’s pheasant differed from that of anthropogenic disturbance, implying staggered shifts in the pheasant’s activity pattern. Moreover, the overlap between Reeves’s pheasant and anthropogenic disturbance was lowest at Liankang Mountain. Our results demonstrated that the diurnal activity rhythm of Reeves’s pheasant exhibits a high plasticity in responding to anthropogenic disturbance. This species adjusts its activity rhythm to adapt the anthropogenic disturbance to a certain extent.

Key words: Reeves’s pheasant, diurnal activity rhythm, human disturbance, circular distributions, behavioral plasticity