生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 678-687.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019385

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

四川黑竹沟地区非飞行小型兽类物种多样性与群落组成

岳先涛1,2,张塔星1,2,窦亮1,2,刘洁1,2,冉江洪1,2,*(),毛夜明3,马晓龙3,张尧3   

  1. 1 四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065
    2 四川大学生命科学学院四川省濒危野生动物保护生物学重点实验室, 成都 610065
    3 四川黑竹沟国家级自然保护区管理局, 四川峨边 614300
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-06 接受日期:2020-02-06 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-03-08
  • 通讯作者: 冉江洪
  • 基金资助:
    四川峨边黑竹沟国家级自然保护区脊椎动物多样性调查项目

Species diversity and community composition of non-volant small mammals in Heizhugou region, Sichuan Province

Xiantao Yue1,2,Taxing Zhang1,2,Liang Dou1,2,Jie Liu1,2,Jianghong Ran1,2,*(),Yeming Mao3,Xiaolong Ma3,Yao Zhang3   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
    2 Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
    3 Sichuan Heizhugou National Nature Reserve Administration, Ebian, Sichuan 614300
  • Received:2019-12-06 Accepted:2020-02-06 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-03-08
  • Contact: Jianghong Ran

摘要:

四川黑竹沟国家级自然保护区位于生物多样性丰富的凉山山系, 在保护和维持区域生物多样性方面具有极其重要的地位, 然而对该自然保护区兽类群落的研究却极为缺乏。为了了解该自然保护区及周边的小型兽类群落,本文作者在2018年4-10月调查了该区域的非飞行小型兽类物种多样性及其群落组成。在海拔1,537-3,830 m间共设置样方184个, 布设鼠夹9,016铗日, 捕获小型兽类536只, 隶属4目7科13属21种。包括滇攀鼠(Vernaya fulva)和等齿鼩鼹(Uropsilus aequodonenia)两个稀有物种在内的共计9个物种为该地区首次报道, 丰富了物种分布记录。结合历史资料, 黑竹沟地区共记录小型兽类43种, 隶属4目9科28属。在43种小型兽类中, 东洋界物种37种, 占绝对优势(86%), 分布型以喜马拉雅-横断山型占优, 为18种(占东洋界48.6%)。本次调查捕获的21种小型兽类中, 群落优势种为中华姬鼠(Apodemus draco, 33.2%)、北社鼠(Niviventer confucianus, 21.3%)和中华绒鼠(Eothenomys chinensis, 12.7%)。随着海拔上升, 群落优势种组成发生变化, 由北社鼠 + 中华姬鼠 + 针毛鼠(Niviventer fulvescens) + 短尾鼩(Anourosorex squamipes)群落, 转变为中华绒鼠 + 中华姬鼠 + 凉山沟牙田鼠(Proedromys liangshanensis) + 西南绒鼠(Eothenomys custos)群落。群落物种区系的分布型组成随着海拔升高而发生变化, 喜马拉雅-横断山型物种随海拔升高所占比例增大; 分布于喜马拉雅-横断山的特有种分布的下限、中点和上限平均海拔都高于非特有种, 且特有种和非特有种的中点和下限平均海拔差异显著(n = 21, df = 19, P = 0.013; n = 21, df = 19, P < 0.01), 说明该区域物种具有明显的东洋界特征, 中高海拔主要由特有种构成。本研究丰富了黑竹沟地区小型兽类及群落多样性的数据资料, 有利于该地区物种多样性的研究和保护。

关键词: 小型兽类, 群落, 垂直多样性, 黑竹沟国家级自然保护区, 峨边彝族自治县

Abstract:

The Sichuan Heizhugou National Nature Reserve is located in the Liangshan Mountains, which is highly rich in biodiversity and plays an important role in protecting and maintaining the regional biodiversity. However, there is a lack of mammalian research in the nature reserve. In order to understand the small mammal communities of the nature reserve and its surroundings, from April to October 2018, we investigated the species diversity and community composition of non-volant small mammals in the region. A total of 184 quadrats including 9,016 traps were set along an elevational gradient from 1,537-3,830 m. We captured small mammal individuals (N = 536), which belong to 4 orders, 7 families, 13 genera, and 21 species. Nine species, including Vernaya fulva and Uropsilus aequodonenia, had been reported for the first time in this region, enriching the species distribution records. According to historical data and our survey, there are a total of 43 species of small mammals, belonging to 4 orders, 9 families and 28 genera in the Heizhugou region. Of the 43 small mammal species, 37 (86%) species are of Oriental origin, and 18 (48.6%) species are of Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains origin. For the 21 small mammal species captured, the dominant species were Apodemus draco (33.2%), Niviventer confucianus (21.3%), and Eothenomys chinensis (12.7%). Along the elevational gradient, the community composition changed from a Niviventer confucianus + Apodemus draco + Niviventer fulvescens + Anourosorex squamipes dominated community to a Eothenomys chinensis + Apodemus draco + Proedromys liangshanensis + Eothenomys custos dominated community. The proportion of Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains origin species increased with elevation. The average lower limit, mid-point, and upper limit of elevation for endemic species mainly distributed in the Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains were higher than that of non-endemic species. The average mid-point and lower limit of elevation of endemic species was significantly higher than that of non-endemic species (n = 21, df = 19, P = 0.013; n = 21, df = 19, P < 0.01). Species composition in this region is mainly represented by fauna of Oriental origin, while the middle and high elevational communities are mainly composed of endemic species. This study enriched the previous species diversity and distribution records of the small mammals, which is important for the study and conservation of species diversity in this region.

Key words: small mammals, community, elevational diversity, Heizhugou National Nature Reserve, Ebian Yi Nationality Autonomous County