生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (7): 913-919.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019331

• 论坛 • 上一篇    

IPBES框架下的生物多样性和生态系统服务区域评估及政策经验

吴杨, 潘玉雪, 张博雅, 戴逢斌, 田瑜*()   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-24 接受日期:2020-02-22 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2020-09-29
  • 通讯作者: 田瑜
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: tianyu@craes.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(22110404001)

Regional assessment on biodiversity and ecosystem services and policy experience within the IPBES framework

Yang Wu, Yuxue Pan, Boya Zhang, Fengbin Dai, Yu Tian*()   

  1. State Environment Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2019-10-24 Accepted:2020-02-22 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-09-29
  • Contact: Yu Tian

摘要:

生物多样性和生态系统服务为人类的生计和良好的生活质量奠定了重要基础。然而, 越来越多的研究表明, 生物多样性和生态系统服务在全球范围内的持续下降使自然对人类的贡献大幅降低。多尺度评估能够说明不同尺度下生物多样性的现状, 有利于制定适合区域特点、符合国情的决策建议。2013年12月, 生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学政策平台(Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES)通过第一轮工作方案, 决定开展“区域/次区域生物多样性和生态系统服务评估”(简称“区域评估”), 即评估亚洲-太平洋(简称亚太)、美洲、非洲以及欧洲-中亚四大地理区域的生物多样性和生态系统服务。区域评估报告及其决策者摘要已在IPBES第六次全体会议上(2018年3月, 哥伦比亚麦德林)审议通过。本文概述了四大地理区域的生物多样性的重要性、生物多样性保护领域取得的进展、面临的主要危机和机遇, 探讨了评估对其他国际进程的影响, 综合分析了各区域生物多样性和生态系统服务的特点以及各区域评估结果的差别, 总结了评估的政策经验, 以期为中国的生物多样性保护提供科学参考。

关键词: IPBES, 区域, 生物多样性, 生态系统服务, 评估

Abstract:

Biodiversity and ecosystem services have laid important foundations for human livelihoods that impact quality of life. However, recent studies have shown a continuous decline globally, thereby reducing human interaction with nature. Multi-scale assessments can explain the current status of biodiversity at different scales which can help formulate decision-making recommendations for regional and national agencies. In December 2013, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) adopted the first work programme and decided to undertake “regional/sub-regional assessment on biodiversity and ecosystem services” (regional assessment). Biodiversity and ecosystem services in the four geographic regions of Asia-Pacific, the Americas, Africa and Europe-Central Asia were assessed. The four regional assessment reports and their summary for policymakers were adopted at the 6th Session of the IPBES Plenary (held March 2018 in Medellin, Colombia). This paper summarizes the importance of biodiversity in each of the four geographic regions and the progress made in biodiversity conservation, the major crises and opportunities, and explores the impact of the assessment on other international processes. This research analyzes the characteristics of biodiversity and ecosystem services in each region and the differences between regions, along with a summary of the policy experience of the assessment to provide important scientific reference for China’s biodiversity conservation.

Key words: IPBES, regional, biodiversity, ecosystem services, assessment