生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 1032-1040.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019217

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国生物多样性保护的变革性转变及路径

杨锐(),彭钦一,曹越,钟乐,侯姝彧,赵智聪,黄澄   

  1. 清华大学建筑学院/清华大学国家公园研究院, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-04 接受日期:2019-09-25 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨锐
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(14ZDB142);国家自然科学基金(51708323);国家社会科学基金(18BGL178)

Transformative changes and paths toward biodiversity conservation in China

Rui Yang(),Qinyi Peng,Yue Cao,Le Zhong,Shuyu Hou,Zhicong Zhao,Cheng Huang   

  1. School of Architecture, Tsinghua University/ Institute for National Parks, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
  • Received:2019-07-04 Accepted:2019-09-25 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-25
  • Contact: Rui Yang

摘要:

全球正在经历第六次物种大灭绝。为了应对生物多样性丧失速率日益加快的严峻挑战, 《生物多样性公约》第十届缔约方大会通过了《生物多样性战略计划》(2011-2020年)及20项爱知生物多样性目标。然而, 2019年IPBES全球评估报告表明, 大部分爱知目标可能无法在2020年实现, 因此, 自然保护需要变革性转变。中国虽然在生物多样性保护方面取得了巨大成就, 提出了系统完整的生态文明制度及建立“以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系”的目标, 并通过绿盾行动和环保督察提升了生物多样性保护的重要性, 陆地自然保护地覆盖率也已达到18%, 但仍未有效遏制生物多样性下降的趋势, 物种濒危程度持续加剧。尽管生态文明一系列改革已经做出了变革性转变, 中央层面大力推行生物多样性“主流化”的相关政策, 通过机构改革初步解决了自然保护地“九龙治水”的问题, 在国土空间规划和生态保护红线划定中强调了生物多样性保护的重要性, 但是, 生物多样性保护仍然缺乏系统性的解决策略, 需要在不同层面进一步落实“主流化”, 建立完整的法律体系和统一规范高效的保护机制, 保障保护资金, 明确生物多样性在生产、生活空间中的地位, 打通自然保护成果与经济利益的转化渠道。因此, 中国的生物多样性保护应当借助生态文明建设的历史性机遇, 在保护意识、空间布局和保护行动3个方面充分实现变革性的转变, 借助五位一体总体布局, 采用系统化的解决方法, 进一步整合法律、行政、市场、技术和社会等五方面力量, 提出具体的实现路径, 实现保护意识主流化、保护利用统筹化和保护行动全民化等三方面变革性的转变, 形成高效一体化的机制, 以实现“人与自然和谐相处”的生物多样性保护理想状态。

关键词: 变革性转变, 生物多样性“主流化”, 保护利用统筹, 国土空间规划, 自然保护地

Abstract:

Earth is experiencing its sixth mass extinction, and in response to the severity of accelerated biodiversity loss, the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets. However, the IPBES global assessment showed that most of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets for 2020 will possibly be missed, because of which the IPBES called for transformative changes in nature conservation in its global assessment report. China has made significant progress in biodiversity conservation, put forward with completed eco-civilization system, try to develop a protected area system, stress the importance of biodiversity conservation by inspection and “Green Shield” action. In addition, up to 18% of territory has been designated as protected area. However, biodiversity is still declining at an accelerated rate, more species are threatened. Although a series of reforms to eco-civilization has started the transformative changes, such as mainstreaming biodiversity in central government, managing all the protected areas in one department, emphasizing the importance of biodiversity in national spatial planning and China Ecological Conservation Red Line (ECRL) designation, systematic strategies and actions are still in need for biodiversity conservation. It is important to further implement “mainstreaming” at different levels, establish a systematic legal system and effective conservation mechanism, guarantee enough funds, clarify the status of biodiversity in production and living space, and make ecosystem service possible to become economic benefits. Therefore, it is necessary for China to achieve transformative changes in terms of conservation awareness, spatial planning, and conservation actions by promoting balanced economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress. It is possible to mainstream conservation awareness, coordinate between conservation and utilization, and promote citizen-based conservation actions if China combines the forces of law, governance, market, technology, and society. This approach world form an efficient and integrated mechanism to achieve the ideal state of biodiversity conservation, “living in harmony with nature”.

Key words: transformative changes, mainstreaming biodiversity, coordination between conservation and utilization, national spatial planning, protected areas