生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 66-73.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019178

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中国大型真菌红色名录评估中存在的问题及今后的对策

李熠1,2#,刘冬梅3#,王科2,4,吴海军2,蔡蕾5,蔡磊2,李俊生3,*(),姚一建2,*()   

  1. 1. 扬州大学食品科学与工程学院, 江苏扬州 225127
    2. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    3. 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    4. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    5. 生态环境部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-27 接受日期:2019-07-09 出版日期:2020-01-20 发布日期:2019-12-17
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生,姚一建
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Red list assessment of macrofungi in China: Challenges and measures

Yi Li1,2#,Dongmei Liu3#,Ke Wang2,4,Haijun Wu2,Lei Cai5,Lei Cai2,Junsheng Li3,*(),Yijian Yao2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127
    2. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    5. Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2019-05-27 Accepted:2019-07-09 Online:2020-01-20 Published:2019-12-17
  • Contact: Junsheng Li,Yijian Yao

摘要:

2018年5月22日国际生物多样性日, 生态环境部和中国科学院联合发布了“中国生物多样性红色名录——大型真菌卷”, 对9,302种大型真菌的受威胁现状进行了评估。根据大型真菌的生物学特性, 此次评估还对IUCN红色名录评估等级标准体系进行了适当调整。本文总结了评估过程中发现的问题: (1)部分物种的分类学地位存在争议, 缺少汉语学名; (2)大量物种的地理分布、种群数量及动态变化等信息缺乏; (3) IUCN的部分评估标准在大型真菌中难以使用; (4)物种的受威胁因素不明确, 缺乏科学定量的分析。针对以上问题, 我们建议: (1)加强真菌分类学研究, 按命名规范拟定物种的汉语学名; (2)加强大型真菌的资源调查, 对重要物种和多样性热点区域进行长期定点监测; (3)引入物种分布建模等定量分析方法, 完善IUCN的评估标准, 使之更适用于大型真菌的评估; (4)鼓励公众参与, 建立交流互动平台, 扩大红色名录工作的影响, 加强大型真菌多样性保护。

关键词: 大型真菌, 红色名录, IUCN, 真菌保护, 濒危

Abstract:

On the International Day for Biological Diversity in 2018, the Red List of China’s Biodiversity—Macrofungi was officially released by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The List assessed the threatened status of 9,302 macro-fungal species. To better fit the evaluation of macrofungi, adjustments have been made to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This study assessed the main problems in the assessment, which can be summarized as follows: (1) taxonomic problems and the lack of available Chinese scientific names for part of species, (2) insufficient geographic distribution, population, and ecological information for various investigated species, (3) difficulty in IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria usage, and (4) uncertainty and missing data for threatening factors of macrofungi. For the mentioned problems, we suggest: (1) an improvement in fungal taxonomic studies, utilizing Chinese scientific names for fungal species, (2) encouragement for continuous field monitoring of fungal resources, (3) utilization of species distribution models to improve the IUCN Red List assessment for fungal red-listing, and (4) the use of public platforms to encourage communication and interaction to access information and increase the social impact of the List.

Key words: macrofungi, red list, IUCN, fungal conservation, endangered