生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 630-637.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019122

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于地形的牲畜空间利用特征及干扰评价——以王朗国家级自然保护区为例

陈星1, 赵联军2, 胡茜茜1, 罗春平2, 梁春平2, 蒋仕伟2, 梁磊1, 郑维超3, *(), 官天培1, *()   

  1. 1 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室, 四川绵阳 621000
    2 王朗国家级自然保护区, 四川平武 622550
    3 唐家河国家级自然保护区, 四川青川 628100
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-09 接受日期:2019-06-14 出版日期:2019-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 郑维超,官天培 E-mail:379265906@qq.com;tp-guan@hotmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31300319)

Impact of livestock terrain utilization patterns on wildlife: A case study of Wanglang National Nature Reserve

Chen Xing1, Zhao Lianjun2, Hu Xixi1, Luo Chunping2, Liang Chunping2, Jiang Shiwei2, Liang Lei1, Zheng Weichao3, *(), Guan Tianpei1, *()   

  1. 1 Ecological Security and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Mianyang Teachers’ College, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000
    2 Wanglang National Nature Reserve, Pingwu, Sichuan 622550
    3 Tangjiahe National Nature Reserve, Qingchuan, Sichuan 628100
  • Received:2019-04-09 Accepted:2019-06-14 Online:2019-06-20
  • Contact: Zheng Weichao,Guan Tianpei E-mail:379265906@qq.com;tp-guan@hotmail.com

地形是栖息地的基本要素, 从地形评价动物的空间利用特征能够掌握动物的分布规律并进行预测。为掌握保护区内牲畜的空间利用特征, 并评价它们对主要保护动物的潜在影响, 我们于2018年5-11月调查了王朗国家级自然保护区内牛和马的分布, 并结合红外相机监测结果及历史监测数据进行了分析和评价。结果表明: (1)虽然两种牲畜均偏好低海拔、低坡度、光照良好(半阳坡、阳坡)、距水源近的栖息地, 但它们在地形利用上存在显著差异; (2)牲畜活动最频繁的三条沟分别是竹根岔右一支沟、竹根岔正沟和大窝凼洋洞沟, 且呈现不同的干扰特征; (3)基于监测数据, 羚牛(Budorcas taxicolor tibetana)可能是保护区内最易受牛马活动威胁的保护动物。红外相机监测结果显示, 羚牛沿海拔分布现状可能是回避牲畜密集区域的结果。基于本研究, 我们建议: (1)保护区重点关注竹根岔(右一支沟、正沟、白沙沟)、大窝凼(洋洞沟、外侧坡)两个核心区的牲畜活动情况, 并尽快针对放牧采取措施。例如, 持续监测重点干扰区域牲畜的种群数量和空间分布趋势。(2)严格限制牲畜继续向高海拔栖息地入侵。(3)管控放牧投盐等干扰的发生频率。(4)加强执法力度, 防止牲畜对保护区带来的干扰持续和扩大, 威胁物种安全。

关键词: 海拔, 栖息地, 放牧, 西南地区, 大熊猫, 国家公园

Terrain use is a fundamental factor of wildlife habitat and is closely related to other environmental factors. To assess the impact of cattle and horse on wildlife, we conducted field surveys in Wanglang National Nature Reserve and analyzed terrain preferences. We also deployed infrared cameras and historical biodiversity data to evaluate the risk of disturbance to key protected species based on altitudinal distribution of livestock. Results showed: (1) Both horse and cattle preferred low altitude habitats with low slopes, close to water with half to full sun aspects. However, there was also significant differences in terrain use between these two domestic animals. (2) The areas with the most frequent disturbance by livestock in the Wanglang Nature Reserve were Youyizhigou and Zhenggou in Zhugencha, and Yangdonggou in Dawodang. (3) Based on historical data, takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) is likely the most influenced wildlife species, as the degree of overlap with livestock along altitudinal gradients is very high. Infrared camera data showed that areas frequented by livestock had fewer takin individuals recorded, indicating a negative relationship due to co-existence. Based on our findings, we suggest, (1) nature reserve should focus livestock in two core areas of Zhugencha (Youyizhigou, Zhenggou and Baishagou) and Dawodang (Yangdonggou and Waicepo) by monitoring the population and distribution of livestock in these areas; (2) they should prohibit the dispersal and distribution of livestock towards higher elevations; (3) the frequency with which local herdsman feed livestock salt needs to be controlled; (4) the strength of law enforcement towards illegal herds should be elevated.

Key words: elevation, habitat, grazing, Southwest of China, giant panda, national park

图1

王朗保护区野外调查样线及相机分布。1: 大窝凼右一支沟; 2: 竹根岔右一支沟; 3: 铁板房沟; 4: 竹根岔右二支沟; 5: 大草坪左; 6: 大窝凼洋洞沟; 7: 大窝凼外侧坡; 8: 白沙沟; 9: 豹子沟与解放沟之间的山脊; 10: 竹根岔正沟; 11: 七棵树沟; 12: 天然苗圃沟; 13: 二道坪; 14: 竹根岔老停车场对坡; 15: 竹根岔南沟; 16: 补充样线1; 17: 补充样线2。"

表1

牛和马的地形选择偏好"

地形因子 Terrain factor 牛 Cattle 马 Horse 可选择性 Availability
海拔 Elevation (m) 2,987.33 ± 7.04 3,092.97 ± 6.42 3,496.97 ± 3.44
坡度 Slope (°) 16.28 ± 0.36 16.28 ± 0.28 30.57 ± 0.09
地形起伏度 Terrain roughness index 28.08 ± 0.56 28.23 ± 0.49 47.51 ± 0.16
距水源距离 Distance to water (m) 187.12 ± 7.21 153.48 ± 5.52 465.2 ± 2.25
太阳辐射值 Solar radiation value (WH/m2) 985,160.94 ± 3,125.05 978,059.35 ± 2,252.7 947,815.03 ± 880.76
阴坡 Shady slope (%) 5.52 7.11 11.58
阳坡 Sunny slope (%) 18.14 12.24 10.31
半阴坡 Semi-shady slope (%) 26.71 36.62 39.67
半阳坡 Semi-sunny slope (%) 49.64 44.03 38.44

表2

牲畜地形选择特征检验"

地形因子 Terrain factor 牛-马 Cattle-horse 牛-背景值 Cattle-background 马-背景值 Horse-background
海拔 Elevation 0.000 0.000 0.000
坡度 Slope 0.663 0.000 0.000
地形起伏度 Terrain roughness index 1.000 0.000 0.000
距水源距离 Distance to water 0.000 0.000 0.000
太阳辐射值 Solar radiation value 0.005 0.000 0.000

图2

王朗保护区主要沟系牲畜干扰沿海拔分布格局。1: 白沙沟; 2: 竹根岔老停车场对坡; 3: 竹根岔正沟; 4: 大窝凼外侧坡; 5: 大窝凼洋洞沟; 6: 大窝凼右一支沟; 7: 二道坪; 8: 竹根岔右一支沟; 9: 豹子沟与解放沟之间的山脊; 10: 七棵树沟。"

表3

牲畜与野生动物分布海拔差异检验"

物种 Species 牛 Cattle 马 Horse
大熊猫 Ailuropoda melanoleuca 0.001 0.000
中华斑羚 Naemorhedus griseus 0.091 0.000
中华鬣羚 Capricornis milneedwardsii 0.661 0.001
羚牛 Budorcas taxicolor tibetana 0.314 1.000

图3

野生动物与牲畜的海拔分布特征"

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