生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 787-795.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019098

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

南麂列岛东侧海域春秋季虾蟹类生物多样性

孙蓓蓓, 俞存根(), 刘惠, 颜文超, 张文俊, 戴冬旭   

  1. 浙江海洋大学水产学院, 浙江舟山 316022
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-24 接受日期:2019-05-24 出版日期:2019-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 俞存根 E-mail:cgyu@zjou.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31270527)

Spring and autumn shrimp and crab biodiversity in the east Nanji Islands

Sun Beibei, Yu Cungen(), Liu Hui, Yan Wenchao, Zhang Wenjun, Dai Dongxu   

  1. Fishery College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316022
  • Received:2019-03-24 Accepted:2019-05-24 Online:2019-07-20
  • Contact: Yu Cungen E-mail:cgyu@zjou.edu.cn

本文根据2017年11月和2018年5月对南麂列岛国家海洋自然保护区东侧海域进行渔业资源定点底拖网调查所获得的虾蟹类数据, 对调查海域的虾蟹类群落结构及多样性进行了研究。结果表明: (1)共鉴定出调查海域的虾蟹类30种, 其中虾类16种, 隶属于1目6科12属, 蟹类14种, 隶属于1目5科6属; (2)秋季虾蟹类物种数高于春季, 且春秋季物种数在整个调查海域大致呈现由北向南逐渐增多的趋势; (3)春季优势种依次为: 三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)、双斑蟳(Charybdis bimaculata)、日本鼓虾(Alpheus juponicus)、细巧仿对虾(Parapenaeopsis tenella)和日本蟳(Charybdis japonica), 秋季优势种均为蟹类, 依次为三疣梭子蟹、双斑蟳和日本蟳; (4)虾蟹类Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')和Pielou均匀度指数(J')是春季大于秋季, 丰富度指数(D)则是秋季远高于春季; (5)根据聚类分析(CLUSTER)与非度量多维标度排序(non-metric multidimensional scaling, nMDS)分析, 可将虾蟹类划分为3个群落; (6)丰度/生物量曲线(abundance-biomass comparison curve, ABC曲线)显示, 南麂列岛调查海域的虾蟹类群落处于稳定未受干扰的状态。

关键词: 虾蟹类, 生物多样性, 群落结构, 南麂列岛东侧海域, 相对重要性指数

We studied the shrimp and crab community and species biodiversity by performing a survey of the bottom-trawling fishery resources in the eastern Nanji Islands National Marine Nature Reserve in November 2017 and May 2018. The results indicated that: (1) A total of 30 shrimp and crab species were identified, including 16 shrimp species belonging to 12 genera in 6 families of one order, and 14 crab species belonging to 6 genera in 5 families of one order. (2) The number of shrimp and crab species was higher in autumn than in spring, and there were gradually more species as we traveled southward across the survey area in both seasons. (3) Dominant species in the spring were Portunus trituberculatus, Charybdis bimaculata, Alpheus juponicus, Parapenaeopsis tenella and Charybdis japonica. Dominant species in the autumn were Portunus trituberculatus, Charybdis bimaculata and Charybdis japonica. There were no dominant shrimp species in the autumn. (4) The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the Pielou’s evenness index were higher in the spring than in the autumn. The species richness index was much higher in the autumn than in the spring. (5) According to hierarchical cluster and non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analyses, shrimp and crabs can be divided into three communities. (6) The abundance-biomass comparison curve (ABC curve) showed that the shrimp and crab communities were stable and undisturbed.

Key words: shrimp and crab, biodiversity, community structure, the east of Nanji Islands

图1

南麂列岛东侧调查海域虾蟹类种数分布"

表1

南麂列岛东侧调查海域拖网调查渔获物虾蟹类种类名录"

种名
Species
春季
Spring
秋季
Autumn
种名
Species
春季
Spring
秋季
Autumn
凡纳滨对虾 Litopenaeus vannamei 巨指长臂虾 Palaemon macrodactylus
周氏新对虾 Metapenaeus joyneri 绒毛细足蟹 Raphidopus ciliatus
刀额新对虾 Metapenaeus ensis 阿氏强蟹 Eucrata alcocki
细巧仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis tenella 隆线强蟹 Eucrate crenata
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii 三疣梭子蟹 Portunus trituberculatus
斑节对虾 Penaeus monodon 红星梭子蟹 Portunus sanguinolentus
鹰爪虾 Trachypenaeus curvirostris 矛形梭子蟹 Portunus hastatoides
中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis 银光梭子蟹 Portunus argentatus
中国毛虾 Acetes chinensis 纤手梭子蟹 Portunus gracilimanus
鲜明鼓虾 Alpheus distinguendus 日本蟳 Charybdis japonica
日本鼓虾 Alpheus juponicus 锈斑蟳 Charybdis feriatus
长额拟鞭腕虾 Exhippolysmata ensirostris 变态鲟 Charybdis variegata
红条鞭腕虾 Lysmata vittata 双斑蟳 Charybdis bimaculata
脊尾白虾 Exopalaemon carinicauda 肉球近方蟹 Hemigrapsus sanguineus
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 豆形短眼蟹 Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides

表2

南麂列岛东侧调查海域主要虾蟹类相对重要性指数(IRI)的季节变化"

种名
Species
春季
Spring
秋季
Autumn
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 227.9 981
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii 35.3 388.7
细巧仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis tenella 1,215.6 297.9
日本鼓虾 Alpheus juponicus 1,360.9 107.3
中国毛虾 Acetes chinensis - 125.1
中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis 66.5 678.4
周氏新对虾 Metapenaeus joyneri - 195.9
隆线强蟹 Eucrate crenata 592.8 161.4
日本蟳 Charybdis japonica 1,133.7 1,156
三疣梭子蟹 Portunus trituberculatus 4,532.8 1,2198.3
双斑蟳 Charybdis bimaculata 2,012.1 2,652.4

表3

南麂列岛东侧调查海域春秋季虾蟹类的生物多样性指数(平均值 ± SD)"

季节 Season 丰富度指数 Margalef richness index 多样性指数 Shannon-Wiener diversity index 均匀度指数 Pielou’s evenness index
Xˉ ± SD Maximum Minimum Xˉ ± SD Maximum Minimum Xˉ ± SD Maximum Minimum
春季 Spring 0.87 ± 0.32 1.30 0 1.11 ± 0.73 2.22 0 0.59 ± 0.21 0.87 0
秋季 Autumn 1.49 ± 0.24 1.80 0.94 1.06 ± 0.32 1.66 0.67 0.27 ± 0.07 0.39 0.16

图2

春秋季不同站位虾蟹类群落的Bray-Curtis聚类图和非度量多维标度排序(nMDS)"

图3

南麂列岛东侧调查海域虾蟹类丰度/生物量曲线(ABC曲线)"

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