生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 758-771.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019087

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国自然保护地空间重叠分析与保护地体系优化整合对策

马童慧, 吕偲, 雷光春()   

  1. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-18 接受日期:2019-06-06 出版日期:2019-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 雷光春 E-mail:guangchu.lei@foxmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    保尔森基金会与河源基金会“中国国家公园体制建设研究”项目

The spatial overlapping analysis for China’s natural protected area and countermeasures for the optimization and integration of protected area system

Ma Tonghui, Lü Cai, Lei Guangchun()   

  1. School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2019-03-18 Accepted:2019-06-06 Online:2019-07-20
  • Contact: Lei Guangchun E-mail:guangchu.lei@foxmail.com

自然保护地体系的构建是国际社会高度重视的生物多样性保护策略。近年来, 中国已关注到自然保护地空间重叠交叉的问题, 并出台了《关于建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系的指导意见》。为落实这一战略, 需要对现有保护地的彼此关系与空间分布进行系统研究。为此, 本研究收集了8,572个不同类型和级别自然保护地的坐标、生态系统类型、行政区域及边界等信息, 筛选出1,532个具有空间重叠、管理部门交叉的自然保护地, 计算地理集中指数并采用ArcGIS软件进行了核密度分析, 得出空间重叠保护地分布的生态地理区、生态系统类型、交叉管理部门、所在省份等空间分布特点。研究结果显示: (1)鲁中山区、太行山、大别山、天目山-怀玉山、皖江等生态功能区的自然保护地重叠最为严重(核密度Mean > 6, Max > 8), 其中太行山区、大别山区、天目山-怀玉山区为重叠保护地密度高的生物多样性优先保护区, 目前10个国家公园试点区域中仅大熊猫国家公园体制试点区、湖南南山国家公园体制试点区、钱江源国家公园体制试点区三处位于保护地重叠高密度区; (2)原主管部门中, 原国家林业局与住房和城乡建设部的交叉管理保护地数量最多, 为294个; (3)黑龙江、安徽、山东、河南、湖北、湖南等省范围内的自然保护地空间重叠状况明显高于其他省区, 而晋冀豫与皖鄂赣这两处三省交界处重叠程度更高, 其他多处三省交界区域也存在保护地的中度重叠。故上述生态地理区、原主管部门与行政区应作为中国自然保护地体系优先普查区域与优化整合重点对象。基于重叠保护地核密度热点区、生物多样性保护优先区与生态系统文化服务的分析框架, 本研究按照国家公园、自然保护区、自然公园三类, 对不同生态功能区自然保护地优化整合优先性与类型提出了初步建议, 以期为当前中国自然保护地体系改革的紧迫需求提供参考。

关键词: 自然保护地, 空间重叠, 交叉管理, 整合, 国家公园

The construction of natural protected area system is a biodiversity conservation strategy which has been highly emphasized by international communities. In recent years, China expresses its concerns about the overlapping and intersection of natural protected area and proposed Guidance on Establishing a Natural Protected Area System Dominated by National Parks. To implement the proposed strategy, it is important to conduct a systematic study on the relationship and spatial distribution of the natural protected areas. This study collected data from 8,572 natural protected areas in different categories and administrative levels, including coordinates, types of ecosystems, administrative regions and boundaries. Among them, 1,532 natural protected areas with spatial overlapping and cross-jurisdictions were selected. Geographic concentration index (G) was calculated, and ArcGIS software was adopted for Kernel density estimation. Finally, the spatial distribution patterns, overlap of protected areas in ecological and geographic zones, ecosystem types, agencies with crossing jurisdiction and province locations were obtained. The results showed that: (1) Natural protected areas were concentrated in mountainous areas in central Shandong, Taihang Mountain, Dabie Mountain, Tianmu-Huaiyu Mountain and Wanjiang region, across multiple wetlands and forest ecosystems (Mean > 6, Max > 8). Among 10 pilot national parks, only Giant panda, Nanshan and Qianjiangyuan were located in areas with high density of overlapping; (2) The former State Administration of Forestry and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development had the largest number of sites under cross-jurisdiction among all the former agencies; (3) The number of overlapping natural protected areas in Heilongjiang, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Hunan provinces are significantly higher than other provinces. The overlap between Shanxi-Hebei-Henan and Anhui-Hubei-Jiangxi provinces is higher, and there is moderate overlap in other provinces. The areas studied above could become key priority areas for reassembling and optimizing China’s protected area system. Based on overlap hot zones, priority zones for biodiversity conservation, and cultural ecosystem services, this paper proposes a framework for reassembling and optimizing overlapped protected areas. According to 3 new protected area categories including national parks, nature reserves and natural parks, suggestions are given prioritizing reassembling and associating the area with a new category, which would provide a reference scheme to the urgent needs of ongoing reform of China’s natural protected areas system.

Key words: natural protected area, spatial overlapping, cross-management, optimization, national park

表1

本研究收集的及现有的中国自然保护地类型与数量"

类型
Category
本研究收集的中国自然保护地数量
Quantity of natural protected areas in China collected by this study
现存保护地数量
Number of existing protected areas
(Tang, 2018)
获取数量占
总数百分比
Total/Existing (%)
国家级
National
省级
Provincial
市级
Municipal
县级
County
总计
Total
自然保护区 Nature reserve 474 834 410 1,022 2,740 2,750 99.6
森林公园 Forest park 880 629 57 0 1,566 3,505 44.7
湿地公园 Wetland park 898 81 0 0 979 979 100
风景名胜区 Scenic spot 244 760 0 0 1,004 981 100
水利风景区 Water park 832 0 0 0 832 2,500 33.3
水源保护区 Water conservation reserve 614 0 0 0 614 618 99.4
水产种质资源保护区
Aquatic germplasm resources reserve
498 0 0 0 498 523 95.2
地质公园 Geological park 226 25 0 0 251 485 51.8
沙漠公园 Desert park 88 0 0 0 88 88 100
总计 Total 4,754 2,329 467 1,022 8,572 12,429 69.0

表2

中国不同级别重叠保护地的数量"

类型
Category
国家级
National
国家级以下Below national level 总计
Total
类型
Category
国家级 National 国家级以下Below national level 总计
Total
风景名胜区 Scenic spot 105 227 332 地质公园 Geological park 116 0 116
自然保护区 Nature reserve 105 190 295 水产种质资源保护区
Aquatic germplasm resources reserve
76 0 76
森林公园 Forest park 236 38 274 水源保护区 Water conservation reserve 47 0 47
水利风景区 Water park 204 0 204 沙漠公园 Desert park 5 0 5
湿地公园 Wetland park 164 19 183 总计 Total 1,058 474 1,532

图1

不同类型保护地的重叠数量"

图2

生态功能区内重叠保护地核密度分布。香港、澳门、台湾地区数据未统计。"

表3

生态功能区内核密度值"

最大值 Max 平均值 Mean 最小值 Min
> 8 6-8 < 6 > 6 4-6 < 4 > 4 2-4 < 2
生态功能区编号Ecological function zone ID 47、5、61、
7、6、49、
62
30、10、59、37、60、
29、27、8、63、58、
32、34、28、4
- 47、61、6、
7、62、5、
59
32、58、27、
8、63、30、
25
- 47、61、6、
62、59、32、
58
5、8、63、60、
7、48
-

图3

生物多样性热点区域内重叠保护地核密度分布。香港、澳门、台湾地区数据未统计。"

表4

原不同主管部门重叠保护地的数量"

林业部 F 住建部 H 水利部 W 国土部 L 农业部 A 环保部 E 其他 R
自然保护地 Natural protected areas 4,696 1,003 1,480 328 672 227 166
重叠保护地 Overlapping natural protected areas 693 334 254 127 90 23 12
百分比 Percentage (%) 14.8 33.3 17.2 38.7 13.4 10.1 7.2

表5

原不同主管部门交叉管理保护地的数量"

图4

各省(自治区、直辖市)不同类型自然保护地的数量。香港、澳门、台湾地区数据未统计。"

图5

各省(自治区、直辖市)重叠保护地类型数量统计。香港、澳门、台湾地区数据未统计。"

图6

各省(自治区、直辖市)地理集中指数。香港、澳门、台湾地区数据未统计。"

图7

行政边界上的核密度分布。香港、澳门、台湾地区数据未统计。"

图8

重叠保护地优先整合框架"

表6

重叠保护地热点区域整合方案"

生态功能区编号Ecological function zone ID 核密度
Kernel density
生物多样性热点
区编号 Biodiversity hotspots ID
核密度
Kernel density
个数
Number
保护地类型Category of protected areas 建议整合类型
Suggested integration category
62 Max = 8.2
Mean = 6.2
/ / 5 NR: 2
OP: 3
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
60 Max = 7.0
Mean = 3.7
3 Max = 7.0
Mean = 3.8
8 NR: 5
OP: 3
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
59 Max = 7.5
Mean = 6.1
26 Max = 7.2
Mean = 4.7
8 NR: 3
OP: 5
国家公园类 National park
49 Max = 8.4
Mean = 3.1
19 Max= 5.6
Mean = 3.2
4 NR: 1
OP: 3
国家公园类 National park
/ 23 NR: 4
OP: 5
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
47 Max = 12.2
Mean = 9.8
/ / NR: 9
OP: 36
自然公园类 Natural park
37 Max = 6.2
Mean = 2.5
21 Max = 5.0
Mean = 2.3
20 NR: 5
OP: 15
国家公园类 National park
22 Max = 5.4
Mean = 2.6
8 NR: 3
OP: 5
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
/ / 5 NR: 0
OP: 5
自然公园类 Natural park
30 Max = 8.0
Mean = 4.0
24 Max = 6.3
Mean = 3.4
18 NR: 5
OP: 13
国家公园类 National park
23 Max = 7.5
Mean = 3.9
12 NR: 2
OP: 11
国家公园类 National park
/ / 26 NR: 2
OP: 24
自然公园类 Natural park
29 Max = 7.0
Mean = 3.4
0 Max = 5.4
Mean = 3.1
7 NR: 1
OP: 6
国家公园类 National park
22 Max = 5.4
Mean = 2.6
3 NR: 0
OP: 3
自然公园类 Natural park
11 Max = 6.5
Mean = 4.0
28 NR: 2
OP: 26
国家公园类 National park
/ / 16 NR: 3
OP: 13
自然保护区类 Nature reserve
27 Max = 7.0
Mean = 4.5
7 Max = 7.0
Mean = 4.3
10 NR: 2
OP: 8
国家公园类 National park
/ / 8 NR: 0
OP: 8
自然公园类 Natural park
10 Max = 8.0
Mean = 3.7
23 Max = 7.5
Mean = 3.9
31 NR: 7
OP: 24
国家公园类 National park
/ / 13 NR: 3
OP: 10
自然公园类 Natural park
7 Max = 9.8
Mean = 6.3
1 Max = 9.4
Mean = 6.6
26 NR: 3
OP: 23
国家公园类 National park
/ / 7 NR: 0
OP: 7
自然公园类 Natural park
6 Max = 9.8
Mean = 7.8
29 Max = 9.8
Mean = 8.0
24 NR: 3
OP: 21
国家公园类 National park
/ / 25 NR: 3
OP: 22
自然公园类 Natural park
5 Max =11.2
Mean = 6.2
13 Max = 11.0
Mean = 6.1
31 NR: 4
OP: 28
国家公园类 National park
/ / 32 NR: 1
OP: 31
自然公园类 Natural park
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