生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 880-886.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019054

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丰林国家级自然保护区木腐真菌多样性与寄主倒木的关系

李俊凝1, 2, 李通1, 2, 魏玉莲1, *()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 中国科学院森林生态与管理重点实验室, 沈阳 110016
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-26 接受日期:2019-05-19 出版日期:2019-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 魏玉莲 E-mail:weiyulianer@sina.com
  • 基金项目:
    科技部科技基础性工作专项(2014FY210400);国家自然科学基金(31870018)

Relationship between diversity of wood-decaying fungi and their host wood in the Fenglin National Nature Reserve

Junning Li1, 2, Tong Li1, 2, Yulian Wei1, *()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-02-26 Accepted:2019-05-19 Online:2019-08-20
  • Contact: Wei Yulian E-mail:weiyulianer@sina.com

木腐真菌是一类以木材为生长基质的大型真菌, 通过分泌各种水解酶全部或部分降解木材中的木质素、纤维素和半纤维素, 促进森林生态系统的物质循环, 具有重要的生态功能。本研究调查了丰林国家级自然保护区固定样地中木腐真菌的多样性和倒木特征, 并进行了木腐真菌的物种多样性和数量与倒木的种类、数量、腐朽程度、直径大小等的相关性分析。结果显示: 在样地内共采集木腐真菌标本295份, 经鉴定为93种, Shannon多样性指数为3.86, Simpson指数为0.96。相关性分析发现木腐真菌的数量和种类与直径为2-5 cm和5-10 cm的倒木、2级腐烂的倒木和红松倒木均显著相关。样地中优势倒木寄主分别为槭属(Acer)、榛属(Corylus)、云杉属(Picea)和松属(Pinus), 这4类倒木上生长的木腐真菌种类组成具有明显的差异, 槭属和榛属倒木上的共有优势种主要是三色拟迷孔菌(Daedaleopsis tricolor)、云芝(Trametes versicolor)和桦附毛孔菌(Trichaptum pargamenum), 而松属和云杉属的共有优势种主要有白囊耙齿菌(Irpex lacteus)、云芝、冷杉附毛孔菌(Trichaptum abietinum)和褐紫附毛孔菌(T. fuscoviolaceum)。倒木产生真菌子实体的概率研究表明, 同一类寄主倒木上发生木腐真菌子实体的概率在调查面积增加到0.36 ha后趋于一个定值, 松属倒木中仅有10.2%产生真菌子实体, 槭属和云杉属分别是12.9%和13.4%, 榛属最高, 达到53.7%。本研究结果对于预测森林生态系统中木腐真菌的发生具有重要理论意义。

关键词: 阔叶红松林, 木腐真菌, 物种多样性, 倒木特征

Wood-decaying fungi decompose cellulose, semicellulose and lignin in wood by exuding various hydrolytic enzymes, so they play an important role in substance cycling in forest ecosystems. A field investigation to study these fungi was carried out in a permanent plot in the Fenglin National Nature Reserve. The wood-decaying fungal species, abundance and host wood characters were recorded. We analyzed the relationship between fungal diversity and the characters of the host wood, including species, abundance, degree of woody decay and wood diameter. A total of 295 specimens identified as 93 wood-decaying fungal species were recorded. The Shannon index was 3.86, and the Simpson index was 0.96. The species richness and abundance of wood-decaying fungi was significantly correlated with wood diameters of 2-5 cm and 5-10 cm, with a classification of 2 in degree of decay and with pine wood. The dominant hosts were Acer, Corylus, Picea and Pinus, and they each hosted different fungal communities. The dominant fungi in maple and hazelnut wood were Daedaleopsis tricolor, Trametes versicolor and Trichaptum pargamenum. Irpex lacteus, Trametes versicolor, Trichaptum abietinum and T. fuscoviolaceum were the dominant fungal species in pine and spruce wood. The analysis of the growing probability of fungal basidiocarps showed that the ratio of wood with basidiocarps to all dead wood of the same species plateaued in areas up to 0.36 ha. For example, the ratio of pine wood with basidiocarps to all pine wood was 10.2%, the ratio was 12.9% for maple wood, the ratio was 13.4% for spruce wood, and the ratio was 53.7% for hazelnut wood. These findings can help predict the occurrence of certain wood-decaying fungi in forest ecosystems.

Key words: broad leaved-Korean pine mixed forest, wood-decaying fungi, biodiversity, dead wood characters

图1

丰林国家级自然保护区固定样地调查样方示意图"

表1

木腐真菌多度和种类与寄主倒木特征的相关性分析"

倒木直径
Diameter of dead wood (cm)
倒木腐烂程度
Decaying degree of dead wood
寄主
Host
0-2 2-5 5-10 > 10 1级
Class 1
2级
Class 2
3级
Class 3
4级
Class 4
松属
Pinus
槭属
Acer
云杉属
Picea
榛属
Corylus
多度 Abundance 0.459* 0.559** 0.572** 0.303 0.220 0.649** 0.364 0.145 0.564** 0.284 0.332 0.077
种类 Species 0.526** 0.564** 0.527** 0.363 0.013 0.606** 0.490* 0.251 0.566* 0.273 0.381 0.053

表2

木腐真菌多度和种类与松属倒木特征的相关性"

倒木直径 Diameter of dead wood (cm) 倒木腐烂程度 Decaying degree of dead wood
0-2 2-5 5-10 > 10 1级 Class 1 2级 Class 2 3级 Class 3 4级 Class 4
多度 Abundance 0.438* 0.401* 0.548** 0.226 0.061 0.627** 0.142 0.208
种类 Species 0.551** 0.366 0.510** 0.246 0.047 0.561** 0.223 0.292

表3

丰林国家级自然保护区固定样地优势寄主倒木上的木腐真菌多样性"

槭属 Acer 榛属 Corylus 云杉属 Picea 松属 Pinus
真菌多度 Fungal abundance 65 54 61 82
真菌种类数 Fungal species 36 34 39 40
Shannon多样性指数 Shannon diversity index 3.29 3.39 3.46 3.22

图2

丰林国家级自然保护区固定样地中不同优势倒木上的木腐真菌种类"

表4

丰林国家级自然保护区固定样地中优势寄主倒木上的木腐真菌优势种"

槭属 Acer 榛属 Corylus 松属 Pinus 云杉属 Picea
优势种
Dominant species
三色拟迷孔菌
Daedaleopsis tricolor
红缘拟层孔菌
Fomtiopsis pinicola
缠结锈革菌
Hymenochaete intricata
云芝
Trametes versicolor
桦附毛孔菌
Trichaptum pargamenum
褐紫附毛孔菌
Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum
三色拟迷孔菌
Daedaleopsis tricolor
云芝
Trametes versicolor
桦附毛孔菌
Trichaptum pargamenum
白囊耙齿菌
Irpex lacteus
缠结锈革菌
Hymenochaete intricata
云芝
Trametes versicolor
冷杉附毛孔菌
Trichaptum abietinum
褐紫附毛孔菌
Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum
白囊耙齿菌
Irpex lacteus
赭色齿耳菌
Steccherinum ochraceum
绒毛韧革菌
Stereum subtomentosum
云芝
Trametes versicolor
冷杉附毛孔菌
Trichaptum abietinum
褐紫附毛孔菌
Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum

图3

样地中不同优势倒木上发生子实体的概率随调查面积的变化"

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