生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 887-895.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019053

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大小兴安岭针叶树倒木上木腐真菌的物种多样性

崔宝凯1, 袁海生2, 周丽伟2, 何双辉1, 魏玉莲2, *()   

  1. 1. 北京林业大学微生物研究所, 北京 100083
    2. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 中国科学院森林生态与管理重点实验室, 沈阳 110016
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-26 接受日期:2019-04-25 出版日期:2019-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 魏玉莲 E-mail:weiyulianer@sina.com
  • 基金项目:
    科技部科技基础性工作专项(2014FY210400);国家自然科学基金(31870018)

Diversity of wood-decaying fungi in conifer trees of the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains

Baokai Cui1, Hai-Sheng Yuan2, Liwei Zhou2, Shuanghui He1, Yulian Wei2, *()   

  1. 1. Institute of Microbiology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2. Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
  • Received:2019-02-26 Accepted:2019-04-25 Online:2019-08-20
  • Contact: Wei Yulian E-mail:weiyulianer@sina.com

木腐真菌在森林生态系统中具有丰富的物种多样性, 并在倒木的降解过程中发挥重要的生态功能。针叶树是大小兴安岭森林生态系统的优势树种, 因此研究针叶树倒木木腐真菌物种多样性和影响其物种分布的相关环境因子有助于揭示大小兴安岭森林生态系统物质循环的机理。本研究收集了近16年对大小兴安岭地区冷杉属(Abies)、落叶松属(Larix)、云杉属(Picea)和松属(Pinus) 4类针叶树倒木上1,561份木腐真菌标本的采集信息, 统计了物种种类及其腐朽类型, 并选取具有代表性的地点开展木腐真菌群落多样性及其与环境因子的相关性分析。结果显示, 大小兴安岭针叶树倒木木腐真菌有166种, 隶属于70属, 其中白腐真菌有111种, 占所有种类的66.9%, 褐腐真菌为55种, 占所有种类的33.1%。在4类针叶树倒木上均能生长的真菌种类有19种, 占所有种类的11.5%, 其中柔丝干酪孔菌(Oligoporus sericeomollis)是各类倒木上木腐真菌群落中的优势种。大兴安岭地区落叶松属为优势寄主, 其倒木上生长的木腐真菌种类数和个体数在4类倒木中均为最高; 而小兴安岭地区松属倒木上木腐真菌种类数和个体数比其他3类倒木高, 是该地区的优势寄主。对6个代表性地区木腐真菌群落的研究显示, 有11种真菌在6个地区均有分布, 小兴安岭地区木腐真菌多样性普遍高于大兴安岭地区; 聚类分析显示树种比地理位置对木腐真菌物种分布的影响更大。

关键词: 木腐真菌, 物种多样性, 针叶树, 大小兴安岭

Wood-decaying fungi have rich species diversity and play an important role in the decomposition of fallen wood in forest ecosystems. Conifer trees are dominant in the forest ecosystems of the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains. Therefore, it is necessary to determine wood-decaying fungal species diversity in conifers and which factors influence their distribution in order to understand substance cycling in the forest ecosystems of the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains. Over 16 years, 1,561 samples of wood-decaying fungi were collected from conifer trees (including Larix, Pinus, Abies and Picea) in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains. The host and fungal species and their rotting types were recorded, and the relationship between the fungal species distribution and potential influencing factors was analyzed. The results showed that there were 166 species belonging to 70 fungal genera found in the conifer wood of the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains. This included 111 white-rot species (66.9%) and 55 brown-rot species (33.1%). Among the 166 fungal species, 19 species (11.5%) grew on all conifers. In the Greater Khinggan Mountains, larch was the dominant host, with the highest number of species and individuals of wood-decaying fungi found there. In contrast, pine was the dominant host in the Lesser Khinggan Mountains. This study of six typical sites showed that the biodiversity of wood-decaying fungi was higher in the Lesser Khinggan Mountains than the Greater Khinggan Mountains, with only 11 species occurring in all six sites. Further, the tree species had greater influence on the distribution of wood-decaying fungi than the site locations.

Key words: wood-decaying fungi, diversity, conifers, the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains

表1

大小兴安岭代表性地点位置及林分特征"

山脉 Mountain 地点 Site 经度 Longitude (E) 纬度 Latitude (N) 林分类型 Forest type
大兴安岭
Greater Khinggan
Mountain
阿尔山森林公园
A’ershan Forest Park
119°28'-121°23' 46°39'-47°39' 寒温带阔叶落叶松林
Cold temperate broad-leaved larch forest
呼中自然保护区
Huzhong Nature Reserve
122°39'-124°21' 51°14'-52°25' 寒温带原始针叶林
Cold temperate coniferous forest
根河林场 Genhe Forest Farm 120°12'-122°55' 50°20'-52°30' 寒温带原始针叶林
Cold temperate coniferous forest
小兴安岭
Lesser Khinggan
Mountain
丰林自然保护区
Fenglin Nature Reserve
128°58'-129°15' 48°02'-48°12' 温带阔叶红松林
Temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest
宁安林场 Ning’an Forest Farm 128°7'-130°0' 44°27'-48°31' 温带阔叶红松林
Temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest
联营林场 Lianying Forest Farm 129°39'-130°47' 47°32'-48°23' 温带阔叶红松林
Temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest

图1

大小兴安岭不同针叶树倒木上木腐真菌种类"

表2

大小兴安岭6个代表性地点4类针叶树倒木上的优势木腐真菌种类"

优势种 Dominant species 寄主 Host
云杉属 Picea 冷杉属 Abies 落叶松属 Larix 松属 Pinus
黄淀粉伏孔菌 Amyloporia xantha + + +
狭檐薄孔菌 Antrodia serialis + +
威兰薄孔菌 Antrodia vaillantii +
哈蒂嗜蓝孢孔菌 Fomitiporia hartigii +
红缘拟层孔菌 Fomitopsis pinicola + +
白膏新小薄孔菌 Neoantrodiella gypsea + +
深褐褶菌 Gloeophyllum sepiarium +
东方异担子菌 Heterobasidion orientale +
柔丝干酪孔菌 Oligoporus sericeomollis + + + +
软帕氏孔菌 Parmastomyces mollissimus + +
紫衫帕氏孔菌 Parmastomyces taxi +
落叶松木层孔菌 Phellinus laricis +
灰蓝波斯特孔菌 Postia caesia +
粉红层孔菌 Rhodofomes cajanderi +
玫瑰红层孔菌 Rhodofomes rosea +
落叶松附毛孔菌 Trichaptum laricinum +

表3

大小兴安岭6个代表性地点4类针叶树倒木上木腐真菌物种多样性"

地点
Sites
多度
Abundance
物种数
No. of species
Shannon多样性指数
Shannon diversity index
Simpson多样性指数
Simpson diversity index
Pielou均匀度指数
Pielou evenness index
根河 Genhe 136 70 4.02 0.98 0.95
阿尔山 A’ershan 223 40 3.04 0.93 0.82
呼中 Huzhong 134 57 3.74 0.96 0.93
联营 Lianying 83 50 3.74 0.97 0.96
丰林 Fenglin 284 88 4.10 0.98 0.92
宁安 Ning’an 189 80 4.07 0.98 0.93

图2

大小兴安岭6个代表性地点4种针叶树倒木上木腐真菌的物种数量"

表4

大小兴安岭6个代表性地点针叶树倒木上木腐真菌的优势物种"

优势种
Dominant species
代表性地点 Typical sites
根河 Genhe 阿尔山 A’ershan 呼中 Huzhong 联营 Lianying 丰林 Fenglin 宁安 Ning’an
黄淀粉伏孔菌 Amyloporia xantha * * * * *
狭檐薄孔菌 Antrodia serialis * *
帕拉斯小薄孔菌 Antrodiella pallasii *
红缘拟层孔菌 Fomitopsis pinicola * *
深褐褶菌 Gloeophyllum sepiarium * *
淡黄丝齿菌 Hyphodontia flavipora *
白膏新小薄孔菌 Neoantrodiella gypsea *
骨干酪孔菌 Oligoporus obductus *
柔丝干酪孔菌 Oligoporus sericeomollis * * * *
软帕氏孔菌 Parmastomyces mollissimus *
微酸多年卧孔菌 Perenniporia subacida * *
落叶松木层孔菌 Phellinus laricis * *
黑线木层孔菌 Phellinus nigrolimitatus *
冷杉附毛孔菌 Trichaptum abietinum * *
褐紫附毛孔菌 Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum * *
落叶松附毛孔菌 Trichaptum laricinum * *

图3

大小兴安岭地区针叶树倒木上木腐真菌群落聚类树状图。plot1: 根河冷杉; plot2: 根河落叶松; plot3: 根河云杉; plot4: 根河红松; plot5: 阿尔山冷杉; plot6: 阿尔山落叶松; plot7: 阿尔山云杉; plot8: 阿尔山红松; plot9: 呼中冷杉; plot10: 呼中落叶松; plot11: 呼中云杉; plot12: 呼中红松; plot13: 联营冷杉; plot14: 联营落叶松; plot15: 联营云杉; plot16: 联营红松; plot17: 丰林冷杉; plot18: 丰林落叶松; plot19: 丰林云杉; plot20: 丰林红松; plot21: 宁安冷杉; plot22: 宁安落叶松; plot23: 宁安云杉; plot24: 宁安红松。"

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