生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 177-185.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018266

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

秦岭南坡陕西洋县辖区哺乳动物物种多样性的空间分布格局

颜文博1, 2, 吉晟男3, 帅凌鹰4, 赵雷刚5, 朱大鹏5, 曾治高2, *()   

  1. 1 陕西理工大学陕西省资源生物重点实验室, 陕西汉中 723001
    2 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室, 北京 100101
    3 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    4 淮北师范大学生命科学学院, 安徽淮北 235000
    5 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局, 陕西佛坪 723400
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-06 接受日期:2019-02-13 出版日期:2019-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 曾治高 E-mail:zengzhg@ioz.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(2017HB2096001006)

Spatial distribution patterns of mammal diversity in Yangxian County of Shaanxi Province on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains

Yan Wenbo1, 2, Ji Shengnan3, Shuai Lingying4, Zhao Leigang5, Zhu Dapeng5, Zeng Zhigao2, *()   

  1. 1 Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, Shaanxi 723001
    2 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Ecological Processes and Functions Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    4 School of Life Sciences, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000
    5 Foping National Nature Reserve, Foping, Shaanxi 723400
  • Received:2018-10-06 Accepted:2019-02-13 Online:2019-02-20
  • Contact: Zeng Zhigao E-mail:zengzhg@ioz.ac.cn

物种多样性的空间分布格局一直是生态学和生物地理学研究的一个热点问题。山地生态系统的生境异质性和物种多样性高, 适合研究物种多样性空间分布格局及其相关机制。2016年11月至2017年11月, 本研究选取秦岭南坡陕西洋县辖区作为研究区域, 采用样线法、红外相机法和笼捕/夹捕法, 系统分析了8目21科48种哺乳动物物种多样性的空间分布格局。研究结果发现秦岭南坡洋县辖区哺乳动物物种丰富度的空间分布格局大致是中南部低, 北部和东部高; 物种多样性指数大致是中南部和北部低, 东部高。啮齿类动物和非啮齿类动物的空间分布格局存在差异。哺乳动物物种丰富度和多样性指数的垂直分布格局都符合中峰模式, 但啮齿类动物和非啮齿类动物间存在差异。最优线性模型结果表明, 研究地区哺乳动物物种多样性的空间分布格局受到多种环境因素的共同影响。其中, 年均温与物种多样性的相关性最强, 在6个最优线性模型中贡献都是最大。综上, 秦岭南坡洋县辖区中高海拔区域的物种多样性较高, 应加强对中高海拔地区的保护, 以维系该区域较高的生物多样性。

关键词: 秦岭, 哺乳动物, 物种多样性, 空间分布格局, 垂直分布格局

Studies on spatial patterns of biodiversity are of great interest in ecology and biogeography. Mountain ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity and rich biodiversity are ideal for the study of biodiversity distribution. From November 2016 to November 2017, line transect survey, camera-trapping and cage-trapping/snap-trapping were used to investigate the mammal diversity in Yangxian County of Shaanxi Province, which is located on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains. A total of 48 mammal species belonging to 21 families and 8 orders were identified in the study area. The spatial distribution of mammal species richness was generally low in the midland and south and high in the north and east of the study area. The spatial distribution of mammal species diversity was generally low in the midland and south and north and high in the east of the study area. The spatial distribution of rodents and non-rodent mammals were different. The elevational distribution of mammal species richness and diversity were unimodal. The elevational distribution of rodents and non-rodent mammals were also different. The best model suggests that patterns of mammal species diversity are governed by the integrated effects of different environmental predictors, with annual mean temperature being the most important. Mammal species diversity peaked at mid and high elevation area. To maintain high biodiversity in the region, we should sustainably strengthen protection of mid and high elevation areas.

Key words: Qinling Mountains, mammal, species diversity, spatial distribution, elevational distribution

图1

研究地区的位置及调查设置(a)和人口分布(b)情况。数据来源于中国科学院资源环境科学数据中心(http://www.resdc.cn)。"

图2

秦岭南坡洋县辖区哺乳动物物种多样性的空间分布格局"

图3

秦岭南坡洋县辖区哺乳动物物种多样性的垂直分布格局"

表1

秦岭南坡洋县辖区哺乳动物物种多样性垂直分布的多项式回归"

物种分组
Species groups
多样性
Diversity
校正赤池信息准则模型差值(一阶)
Corrected Akaike information criterion
(Order 1)
校正赤池信息准则模型差值(二阶)
Corrected Akaike information criterion
(Order 2)
哺乳动物总体
Overall
丰富度 Richness 16.82 0
多样性指数 Diversity index 5.06 0
啮齿类动物
Rodents
丰富度 Richness 7.82 0
多样性指数 Diversity index 1.66 0
非啮齿类动物
Non-rodent mammals
丰富度 Richness 14.46 0
多样性指数 Diversity index 5.13 0

表2

秦岭南坡洋县辖区哺乳动物物种多样性与环境因子最优线性模型"

多样性
Diversity
环境因子
Environment
variables
因子系数
Coefficient
t P
哺乳动物总体 Overall
丰富度
Richness
Tmean 5.71 1.63 0.12
T2mean -0.32 -2.14 < 0.05
Vegn 8.96 2.09 0.05
Vegn2 -0.99 -1.71 0.11
EVI -2.38e+03 -2.17 < 0.05
EVI2 3.62e+03 2.25 < 0.05
多样性指数
Diversity index
Tmean 1.02 2.55 < 0.05
T2mean -4.73e-02 -2.21 < 0.05
AP -0.16 -2.31 < 0.05
AP2 9.05e-05 2.34 < 0.05
Vegn2 2.59e-02 2.28 < 0.05
啮齿类动物 Rodents
丰富度
Richness
Tmean 7.11 3.12 < 0.01
T2mean -0.33 -3.10 < 0.01
AP2 2.60e-05 2.36 < 0.05
Vegn 1.04 2.73 < 0.05
EVI -1.45e+03 -2.68 < 0.05
EVI2 2.10e+03 2.70 < 0.05
多样性指数
Diversity index
Tmean 1.43 2.13 < 0.05
T2mean -6.41e-02 -2.06 0.06
AP2 3.79e-06 1.19 0.25
Vegn2 1.85e-02 1.24 0.24
EVI -2.62e+02 -1.66 0.12
EVI2 3.66e+02 1.61 0.13
非啮齿类动物 Non-rodent mammals
丰富度
Richness
T2mean -0.09 -5.81 < 0.01
Vegn 5.97 1.92 0.07
Vegn2 -0.74 -1.79 0.09
EVI2 1.84e+02 3.22 < 0.01
多样性指数
Diversity index
Tmean 0.94 2.35 < 0.05
T2mean -0.04 -2.47 < 0.05
Vegn2 0.04 3.19 < 0.01
EVI2 -16.74 -1.49 0.16
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