生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 5-12.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018246

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

钱江源国家公园体制试点区功能分区对黑麂保护的有效性评估

余建平1, 申云逸2, 宋小友1, 陈小南1, 李晟2, 申小莉3, *()   

  1. 1 钱江源国家公园生态资源保护中心, 浙江开化 324300
    2 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    3 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-13 接受日期:2019-01-02 出版日期:2019-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 申小莉 E-mail:xlshen@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    科技部重点研发项目(2017YFC0503802)

Evaluating the effectiveness of functional zones for black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) protection in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site

Yu Jianping1, Shen Yunyi2, Song Xiaoyou1, Chen Xiaonan1, Li Sheng2, Shen Xiaoli3, *()   

  1. 1 Center of Ecology and Resources, Qianjiangyuan National Park, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
    2 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2018-09-13 Accepted:2019-01-02 Online:2019-01-20
  • Contact: Shen Xiaoli E-mail:xlshen@ibcas.ac.cn

功能分区是统一协调国家公园不同保护管理目标的主要措施, 对于国家公园的有效管理有重要意义。钱江源国家公园是我国首批国家公园体制试点区之一, 被分为核心保护区、生态保育区、游憩展示区和传统利用区4个部分, 对应不同的保护管理措施。本研究分析了钱江源国家公园体制试点区现有功能分区与其首要保护对象黑麂(Muntiacus crinifrons)的适宜栖息地之间的空间关系。在红外相机调查获取的94个黑麂分布点的基础上, 结合海拔、地形、植被特征、人为活动干扰等15个环境特征变量, 采用MaxEnt模型预测国家公园内黑麂适宜栖息地的空间分布。结果表明, 黑麂倾向于出现在森林较为原始和道路密度较低的区域, 其适宜栖息地面积42.5 km 2, 占国家公园总面积的16.9%。其中, 69.3%的黑麂适宜栖息地位于核心保护区, 30.4%位于生态保育区, 表明国家公园现有功能分区能很好地满足黑麂栖息地保护的需求。此结果也证明黑麂可以作为其分布范围内保存较好的亚热带森林生态系统的指示性物种。通过生境恢复、廊道建设和跨省共建促进黑麂栖息地的完整性保护, 是加强该区域黑麂栖息地保护的关键措施。

关键词: 国家公园, 功能分区, 黑麂, 物种分布模型, 廊道

Functional zoning is a method of classifying areas to define human use and is of great significance for the effective management of protected areas. Qianjiangyuan National Park is one of the ten national park pilot sites in China and is divided into four functional zones, the core protection zone, ecological conservation zone, recreation zone and traditional utilization zone. Each zone is assigned a different level of protection and corresponding management measures. This study examined the spatial overlap of existing functional zones in Qianjiangyuan and suitable habitats for its target conservation species, the endangered black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons). We constructed distribution models based on 94 occurrence locations obtained from camera-trapping surveys from 2014-2018 using MaxEnt. Fifteen covariates related to altitude, topography, vegetative characteristics and human disturbance were used in the MaxEnt models to predict suitable habitats for the black muntjac. The results showed that the black muntjac tended to inhabit areas with intact forest and low road density. We identified 42.5 km 2 of suitable habitat, which accounted for 16.9% of the land in Qianjiangyuan National Park. Of this suitable habitat, 69.3% and 30.4% were located in the core protection zone and ecological conservation zone, respectively, which indicated that the existing zone designations can protect black muntjac habitat appropriately. These results also indicated that the black muntjac may serve as an indicator species of the subtropical primary forests where it lives. Promoting habitat integrity for the black muntjac by restoring habitat, constructing corridors and managing across provinces will be key to strengthening the protection of the black muntjac in the region.

Key words: national park, functional zones, black muntjac, species distribution model, corridor

图1

古田山国家级自然保护区2014-2018年红外相机调查网格与黑麂记录位点"

表1

用于钱江源国家公园体制试点区内黑麂适宜栖息地评估的环境因子"

变量 Variables 代码 Code 变量类型 Data type 范围/类型 Range/Content
海拔 Elevation (m) ELE 连续 Continuous 170-1,260
坡度 Slope (o) Slope 连续 Continuous 0-53.2
坡向 Aspect Aspect 分类 Categorical 阳坡/阴坡 Warm/cold aspect
地表崎岖度 Ruggedness (m) TRI 连续 Continuous 0-52.7
土地利用类型 Land use type LU 分类 Categorical 乔木林、竹林、疏林、特殊灌木林地、苗圃等13类 Forest, bamboo forest, shrub, special shrub land, nursery etc.
森林类型 Forest type FOR_type 分类 Categorical 针叶林、阔叶林、针阔混交林、非林地 Conifer, broadleaf, conifer and broadleaf mixed forest, and non-forest
森林完整性 Forest intactness FOR_int 分类 Categorical 无干扰的原始林、轻度干扰的天然林、重度干扰的天然林或人工林 Primary forest, natural forest with light disturbance, natural forest with heavy disturbance/planted forests
林龄 Age of stand FOR_age 分类 Categorical 幼龄林、中龄林、近熟林、成熟林、过熟林、非林地 Young forest, middle-aged forest, near-mature forest, mature forest, over-ripe forest, non-forest land
优势树种 Dominant species FOR_spp 分类 Categorical 马尾松, 黄山松, 池杉等共60类
Pinus massoniana, Pinus taiwanensis, Taxodium ascendens, etc.
主干道密度 Density of large roads (m/km2) LRD_den 连续 Continuous 0-2.01
总道路密度 Density of all roads (m/km2) TRD_den 连续 Continuous 0.04-4.37
与最近道路距离 Distance to nearest road (m) TRD_dist 连续 Continuous 0-3,750
居民点密度 House density (m2/km2) HOU_den 连续 Continuous 0-75,100
与最近居民点距离 Distance to nearest house (m) HOU_dist 连续 Continuous 0-2,650
河流密度 River density (m/km2) RIV_den 连续 Continuous 0.40-2.22
与最近河流距离 Distance to nearest river (m) RIV_dist 连续 Continuous 0-1,150

表2

钱江源国家公园体制试点区内黑麂适宜栖息地及6个最大斑块的特征"

斑块编号
Patch ID
斑块面积
Area (ha)
核心栖息地面积
Core area (ha)
核心栖息地数量
Number of core area
核心栖息地面积比例
Core area percentage (%)
所有斑块 All patches 4,254 1,992 92 46.8
1 52 10 2 19.4
2 68 13 5 20.0
3 262 171 1 65.2
4 273 92 13 33.9
5 660 195 14 34.9
6 2,395 1,457 28 60.8

图2

钱江源国家公园体制试点区内黑麂适宜栖息地分布图。编号1-6为面积最大的6个栖息地斑块, 以不同颜色显示, 绿色斑块为其余的适宜栖息地。"

图3

Jackknife检验评估制约黑麂分布的主要环境因子及其相对贡献。代码含义见表1。"

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