生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 775-779.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018168

• 论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

论保护地分类与以国家公园为主体的中国保护地建设

蒋志刚1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2018-07-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者

On classification of protected areas and the construction of China’s Protected Area System with national parks as a leading part

Zhigang Jiang1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

中国正在开展一场以国家公园为龙头的保护地建设, 面临着一个跨领域、跨行业、全空间的保护地分类管理难题。世界各国建立了各种各样的保护地, 这些保护地存在着“同物异名、同名异物、一物多名”现象。IUCN提出了一个保护地分类系统, 以期将所有的保护地纳入一个体系。人们试图按照IUCN的保护地分类系统对现有保护地分类, 但是IUCN保护地分类系统的定义模糊, 无量化标准, 而保护地的属性常常存在非唯一属性等问题。保护地分类是一个学术问题, 可以自由探讨, 百家争鸣; 而保护地的管理是行政问题, 必须有章可依, 有法可循。中国现有10多种不同的保护地类型, 本身就是一种分类体系, 有的保护地, 如自然保护区、风景名胜区、地质公园等已经有相应的行政法规和管理经验。中国国家公园应整合优化而不是取代现有的其他类型保护地。以国家公园为龙头的中国保护地体系需要顶层设计和专门立法。保护地应当推动当地社区人与自然协调发展。

关键词: 保护地, 保护地分类标准, 国家公园

Abstract:

China is constructing a protected area (PA) system with national park as the leading type and facing a tough task of classifying and managing PAs across fields, industries and space. Countries overall the world have established various types of PAs. In the PAs of the world, there may be the same type of PAs bears different names, different types of PAs bear the same name, one PA has more than one names. IUCN put forward a category system to classify PAs of the world, people tried to apply the category to classify China’s PAs, but the category has the problems such as the fuzzy classification, without quantification standard, and the attribute of a PA is often non-exclusive. The classification of protected land is an academic issue whereas the management of PAs is an administrative issue, which must follow the laws and administrative regulations. Nevertheless, the existing PA system is already classification system by itself. Many types of PAs, like nature reserve, scenic site, geoparks, have their own bylaws or administrative regulations and management expertise. China's national parks shall integrate and optimize rather than replacing other existing PAs. National park system as leading part of China's PA system requires top-level design and legislation. PAs should promote the harmonious development of local community, people and nature.

Key words: protected areas, category of protected areas, national park